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Introduction. 



Until as late as 1862, no critical edition of the Fables of 
Avianus had been published. In that year Wilhelra Frohner first ex- 
hibited the readings of the three earliest MSS in the National li- 
brary of Paris. Only 18 years brfore this the Greek scazons of Ba- 
brius from whom Avianus obtained most of his material , first be- 
came known to the philological world. Hence the data from which 
we may reckon the period of Avianus* writing are somewhat limited. 

These data naturally divided themselves into groups,(a) ex- 
ternal and (b) internal authorities. 

(a) It is remarkable that the fables are not quoted by any 
of the writers included in the first six volumes of Keil's edi- 
tion, whe^e Symmaehus , Prudentius , Sidonius and many others are quo- 
ted. 

In the Index to Mommsen's Corpus Inscriptionum Regni Neop- 
olitani,we find that there is some ground for thinking the writer 
of the fables Avianius, rather than Avianus. Still it is improb- 
able that no trace of the Gen.ii would remain. The oxford edition 
adds the prae-nomen .Sextus which gives ground for the belief that 
Avianus was the well known author of the Aratea and Descriptio Or- 
bis Terrae. But the style of these writings is so entirely diff- 
erent as to preclude such identification. It is quite probable 
that the names Avianus and Avianius are confused. 

( b ) The fables are dedicated to a certain Theodosius,who 
was perhaps one of the Roman emperors of that name; or perhaps Ma- 



f 

UIUC 



erobius Theododius , the author of the Saturnalia. It was very com- 
mon to address literary works to the emperors; on the whole however 
the tone of the letter is confidential and familiar with no defer- 
ential style v/hatever. This seems to indicate that Avianus is real- 
ly addressing some leader in literature, although the extravagant 
remark "cum in utroque litterarum genere et Atticos Graeea "erudit- 
o~ne superes et latinltate Romanov" ,would not be unsuited to imper- 
ial praise. This leader of literature could well be Maorobius The- 
odosius,the author of the Saturnalia. If this is true, we conclude 
that the youthful Avienus of the Saturnalia is the Avianus of the 
fables. His description in the Saturnalia is that of a modest 
youth, who speaks but little of himself. He keeps the conversation 
of the others going by questions. His personality is well fitted 
to that of a lover of fables. He tel 3 s numerous stories to the en- 
tertainment of the company, who hail with delight his bright memory 
and pleasant wit. 

From the foregoing data we may fix the loroba.ble period of 
Avianus . Maorobius tells us that some of the interlocutors in his 
Saturnalia did not reach the age of maturity until after the per- 
iod of Praetextatus,who died in 385. We may suppose the banquet 
which is the scene of the dialogue in the Saturnalia to have been 
between the years 362 ( the date of Praetextus' proconsulate in Ach- 
aia ) or 368(the time of his office as city prefect. ) and the year 
385( the time of his death.). At the time of the banquet Avianus is 
described as adulescems. If he was seventeen in 370, he would have 
been born in 353. At any rate, it follows that he was quite a young 



-?,- 



man when he published his forty- two fables. He lived at the time 
of the renewed opposition to Christianity. He wrote at a time when 
Paganism was still sufficiently in the ascendant to be interesting. 
He thus speaks naturally of temples, altars, sacrifices and gods. A- 
vianus was not a C hr i s t i an-, at 1 e a 8 1 ; at least we can not infer that 
he was from these fables. 

The subjects of his fables are taken From scenes of homely, 
every day life. They descend not only from Babrius ( ?,?.?,-27>o ) but 
in some cases from Aesops.(650 B.C. ). Mo remnant of Homan litera- 
ture is more saturated with the diction of Vergil than these fa- 
bles. Avianus himself in his preface says he has written in "rudi 
latinitate . " The general effect is complex. The prevailing tone of 
the language is poetical; it is artificial. But in writing at a 
time when the Latin language was senescunt and in writing on sub- 
jects adapted to childish understandings , he had to fit his lan- 
guage to both his subjects and his hearers. Hence he uses words 
that belong to the declining diction of the day and the grammati- 
cal construction is often very lax. This combination or the elabor- 
ate, classical style with the rude elements makes the fables seem 
unfinished. Yet this very weakness was in part a cause of his pop- 
ularity; it shows that he was in sympathy with his r.ime. 

The fables selected for this collection are: IV. ,v. , ix. , 
XII. ,XIV. ,XVI. , XVIII. ,XIX. ,XXII. , XXIII. ,XXIV. ,XXVI. , XXVII. ,XXXI. , 
XXXII . , XXXIII . , XXXIV . , XXXV . , XXXIX . , XL . These were all chosen on 
account of their intrinsic interest or the interest felt in them 
on account of their popularity in modern times. 



-3- 



IV. 

The Wind, and the Hun. 

Pierce Boreas and cairn Phoebus were disputing with mighty 
Jupiter before the powers of the sky, as to which could first acc- 
omplish an undertaking. A traveler happened to be taking his soli- 
tary way along a plane. It is agreed as the preferable plan to 
make this the contest, the stripping off of the man's outer gar- 
ment and leaving him lightly clad. 

Then the wind shrieks around the traveler and a cold rain 
lets fall an abundance of water. The traveler all the more closely 
clasps his double folded garment to his side, because the violent 
wind pushes aside and pulls at the folds. 

But Phoebus ordered his slender beams to increase gradually, 
that the sunshine night rise with great heat until the traveler 
was worn out, and wishing to rest his tired frame , spread out his 
coat on the ground and sat down. 

Then P'-ioebus' as the victor showed to the assembled powers 
that nothing can be accomplished by means of threats. 



-4- 



N o t e f? -and tranc I a tion. 

L.I, ad sidera-in the presence of the stars. Perhaps cum mag- 
no love ,is to be construed closely with ad sTdera i.e. in the pres- 
ence of the gods with Jupiter as arbiter. More probably , they dis- 
pute with Jupiter. 

L . i , Boreas , the North wind, brother of Furus and Notus. 
Phoebus , another name for Apollo, the bright, the life giving; hence 
the god of light, the sun. 

L . 1 , Inmi tis-placidus are antithetical. The story binges on 
the relative powers of force and persuasion. 

L. 3, Quia for uter. This is found several times in Phaedrus 
who wrote fables during the Augustan age. 

L . 5 ,potius-rather ; comparative degree , preferable to other 
plans under (.oubi^ v ^ Ut) ^' 

L. 6, pallia decutiendF) , object accusative , apposition with 

cans am. 

L.9,duplicem may be for duplicatura or it is reasonable to 
think that duplieis amictus was extra heavy, like our storm coat. 

L . 13,requlesoere is transitive here;v.Verg.Eci.VIII-4. 

L. 15, Ti tan-Phoebus , so called from his being a son of Uran- 
us and Ge, whose children were called Titanes. v. Harper's Classi- 
cal Diet. 



I v. 

The Ass in a Lion's Skin. 

It is proper to measure yourself and. to be pleased with 
your own praises, hut not to claim for yourself the good of another, 
lest the removal of the finery make you a laughing stock when you 
are first left with only your def ioienoies . 

An ass chanced to find the skin of a Gaetulian lion, and clo- 
thed himself in his new found spoils. He fitted the ill suited 
hide to his own frame, and weighed down his sorry head with so much 
honor. But when his farcically terrible hair bristled, imaginary vig 
or came into his bonep. and treading down trie fodder common to the 
domestic animals, he scattered the frightened oxen in confusion 
thru the meadows where they grazed. After the farmer detected him 
by his large ear, he seized the animal and tamed him by means of 
chains and the lash. Detaching the skin and stripping the body, he 
beat the unfortunate beast , saying: "Perhaps you may deceive those 
who don't know you, by your mimic roar, but to me you will always be 
an ass as of old. 




-6- 



No tes- l . 2 , bona- used substantively . 
1.5,Graetuli, the country now Morocca, native home of lions. 

1.9, terribilis mimo-in play , pretended ;::iorror-a bristling-standing 
on end, referring to the lion's eoat of hair. 

1 . 10 , praesumptus vigor-i . e . , that he had assumed when he first 
donned tha new skin. 

1.15,Tergo abs traeto -the loosened skin on the back. 



-7- 



IX. 

The Two Comrades and the Bear. 

Two comrades w;;re making a close journey thru unknown moun- 
tains and winding valleys, hoth secure, for either could endure what- 
ever evil, chance might bring, with the strength of the other united 
to his own. While they are proceeding thru, some enclosed ground en- 
gaged in conversation on various topics, a bear rushes straight at 
them. One of the companions , grasping an oak stem with an easy bound, 
very fearfully conceals himself in the green foliage. The other, ad- 
vancing no farther lies down , dashing himself purposely to the ground 
and feigns to be dead. The fierce bear, greedy for prey , immediately 
runs up and first raises the poor man in his curved claws. But be- 
cause the limbs were stiffened thru icy fear and the usual vital 
warmth had left the body, the bear believed his prey a decaying 
corpse, and hungry as he was, he went away and hid in his own haunts. 

When again safe, the two comrades gradually resumed their 
conversation. The one who had played the coward, said a little too 
jocosely.: "Tell me please what the bear said to you when you were 
so frightened, for it spoke a long time to you in secret." 

"It advised me many things, but this especially it even com- 
manded, and I poor wretch, must needs carry it out. It said* Do not 
lightly return to the companionship of a new friend, lest you again 
be attached by some wild animal." 



Motes- . 1 . 2-quidam cum Bocio— two companions. Iter artum- 
in the sense of close , confined. 

1.5, Mote conciseness and brevity in vario serraone. 

1.9, Such alternating or interlocking of clauses is not 
common in Avianus. 



-9- 



XII . 
The Treasure . 

A farmer after breaking up the earth with a plow Bees some 
treasure leap forth from the furrows. Then, quick as thought he 
leaves the despised plow and drives his oxen to better pasture. Im- 
mediately, as a worshipper he raised altars to Tellus , because she 
had given to him of her own accord the riches in her keeping. For- 
tuna, foreseeing toe future, gave him this warning vnen he was re- 
joicing over his new possessions , because she was grieved that she 
too was not deemed worthy of incense. "Now you do not bring your 
gifts to a temple of mine, but yoii prefer to have other gods shar- 
ers with you. But when your gold is stolen away and you are very 
sad, then penniless you will solicit me first of ail with your pray- 
ers . 



-10- 



Notes .- 1.3,animo prope ran t e- 1 quick as thought.' 

1.4, s< 'mina-not seeds, hut the Vcrgilian meaning, plants, 
crops ,pas tures . 

1.5, Tellus was identif led by some as Ops. 

1.8, supply esse after indignam; indignam-indignam habere"- 
an instance of Avianus' brevity. 



-11- 



XIV. 
About an Ape . 

Once on a time Jupiter sought to learn who in all the world 
could present the best offering of children. All kinds of wild an- 
imals immediately hasten to the king and the domestic animals too 
are oblidged to go. I^ven the scaly fishes are present at the con- 
test to see whether the clearer atmosphere has produced any birds 
superior to their kind. Among those who came were mothers, in flut- 
tering anxiety bringing their children to be scrutinized, for the 
judgment of the great god. Then when a drawfish ape brought her de- 
formed son up, even Jupiter himself had to burst into laughter. Al- 
though the ugliest of all, before any one could say a word, the ape 
broke in, because she wished to wipe away the reproach of her kind; 
"Jupiter knows to whom the prize belongs, but in my opinion this 
child is superior to all." 



-12- 



Notes . - The blind love and extravagant pride of a mother 
for her child is admirably set forth in this fable; it is a charm- 
ing tale and told in an almost humorous way. 

1.2, Meliora is used where we would expect optima. This in 
not surprising if we thinh. of our own common misuse of compura- 
tives and superlatives in English. 

Between Is. 5 and 6 there is an ellipsis ;ut vidTirent or some 
such clause is to be supplied. This is not uncoiomon among other 
writers and is therefore not to be attributed to Avianus' crude 
latinity . 

1.. Hi Ante alios', a 8 well as "rupit vocem' shown the mother 
ape's haste. 'Tamen' is related to 1 turpissima 1 -though the ugliest 
of all, for all that etc. 

1.14, Super meaning above in the sense of superior is not 
ooMnon. It usually denotes physical relation. 



-13- 



XVI . 



On a lofty mountain, an oak uproo ted, f e 11 , conquered, by the 
mad. blast of the wind. A rising river flowing below it, caught it 
in its waver- and carried it along in its swift current. But when 
its tall length was pushed from side to side by the opposite banks, 
it settled among some slender reeds. Then the oak wonders that the 
reed, binding its stalks together by a mere tuft, can stand in the 
running shoals. Even with its immense trunk the oak can not stand 
erect, but the eane,v--ith its slight stem stands all blasts. The 
creaking reed answers with a deferential murmur and shows that it 
is safe in its weakness. 

"You disdain the rapid winds and the fierce storms 11 , it said, 
"and in spite of all your strength, you fall on the beach. But I 
keep dallying with the gradually rising winds and yield wisely to 
their slightest breezes. In fury the rain cloud bursts against 
your sturdy stem, while the wind, baffled by my movements ,dies away. 
This story teaches that weak things resist the strong and gradual- 
ly overcome their fury . 



-14- 



Notes ♦ - This fable is very popular. Macrobius S.VII 8-6, has 
a passage which from its wording looks as if this fable of Avian- 
us might have been known to the author. 

1 .4, praecipitante,is used, in its intransitive meaning, rush- 
ing along or simply swift. 

1. 5, Ard.ua, the adj .meaning hign or long,is used to modify 
the subject of impeliitur ( quereus )or possibly it is used substan- 
tively to mean length. 

1.6, Grande onus again emphasizes trie size of the oak by the 
close connection of the words with fragiles o alamos. 

1 . v ,0onectens may refer to the oak, interlacing its boughs 
with the slight reeds, but more probably refers to the reed. 

1.9, 10, are indirect discourse after the idea of thinking im- 
plied in miratur ,1.8. 

1 . 12 ,magis , used adverbially to modify tut am is rare. We 
should expect tutiorera. 

1.15, is explained by 1 . 16 ; cedo notis explains the manner of 
hindering the winds. 

Note the antithesis of the following words : aura, nimbus ;*?lu- 
dif icata,praeruptus ; perit,se fundit. 



-15- 



XVIII . 

About the Four Oxen and the Lion. 

The story goes that there was onoe such loyalty of friend- 
ship among four immense oxen in the same meadows , that when let out 
they never separated nor strayed apart, but would return from past- 
ure together, still close friends. A great lion in the woods is 
said to have feared these oxen standing with their horns inter- 
laced. Pear kept him from trying to procure prey and he shrunk 
from approaching them in their four-fold strength. But however rec- 
kless he was, in spirit he was still more savage in what he did;nev- 
erthelesp he was not a match for such strength. Therefore he immed- 
iately begins to urge evil oounse is ^desiring to sever the united 
herd. Then after breaking their agreement by exasperating words, he 
falls upon th^ wretched oxen and tears them to pieces. One of thes 
at the very last Raid: 

"Whoever desires to lead a quiet life, can learn a lesson 
from our death. Let him not fill his ready ears with misleading re- 
ports in too great haste nor break off friendship of long standing? 



-16- 



Notes . - 1.4,Amans> limits turba. Turba means the oxen as or.e 
united group. 

l . 3,emis30s-sc . stabulTs. 

l. 7, translate oblatam like an infinitive, complementing temp- 
tare. After prohibet we should expect the subj.mood. 

1.9, "But however bold by nature, and although even more sav- 
age in what be did-". 

1.10, tautorum limits invencorum understood. 

1.11, Pravis verbis is dative after insistere. 

1.15, Tunc means just at the time of 1 invasit Jbefore the time 
of diripuit . 1 

1.18, Ante, the adverb is used as an adjective with fidem. 
This is eoiLion in every period of the language. Oieero and Pi.au- 
tus both use adverbs in this way. 



-17- 



XTX. 

The Fir-tree and the Bramble hush. 

A very comely fir-tree once made fun of a prickly bramble 
bush, and when they got into a cfuarrel about their appearance , the 
fir paid it was a pitiable quarrel to have with those whom no ti- 
tle associated as equals. "For my tapering trunk rising into the 
clouds lifts its topmost branches straight to the stars. When I am 
set amidships on the open deck, on me i" hung the canvas that the 
breeze fills. But because the thorns give you a disfigured shape , 
all men pass you by in scorn." 

The bramble bush replied, "Nov;, in your joy you admit 
only your good qualities and you enjoy insulting me on account of 
my bad qualities , but when the menacing ax cuts down your beautiful 
branches , then how you will wish that you had jay thorns!" 



-18- 



— , — 

Motes . - i . 1 ,duuioft ; -the plural is used of the separate bram- 
bles and denotes the bush as a whole-. 

l«3,referens limits abies in the first line. 

1.4, quos refers to durois and is limited by meriius. 

1.5, Here the indirect discourse changes to direct. 

1 . 7 , iocarour-the editorial plural is used, or perhaps the i- 
dea is of the branches taken separately , since the whole tree would 
probably not be used in the ship for tnis purpose. Media s"ede, raid- 
ship . 

1.8, sup en sos sinus is the direct object of explicat. 
1.12,imperiosa Units the subject of frueris. 
1.13, 14, the tense oj. succidet represents the case a nosi- 

tive future occurrence and voiles emphasizes the futility of" the 
wish. 

This fable reiterates the old proverb-r It's an ill wind 
that blows no good to some one. 



-19- 



XXII. 
Greed and Envy. 

V 

Jupiter pent Phoebus to the earth from Olympus, to learn the 
uncertain minds of men. Just then two persons were calling upon 
the gods for help with vows that differed greatly; one was greedy, 
the other envious. When Phoebus had carefully examined both, he of- 
fered himself as a mediator to them-, he was besought by their pray- 
ers and he said,"The willing gods grant petitions, but whatever 
one asks, the other immediately striK.es for the same doubled." 

But since f ar-reaohing greed can not be satisfied, the avar- 
icious man protracted his prayers , addressed to the gods, into un- 
expected losses, trusting that his hope would increase in probable 
attainment by the other's prayers and that he alone would receive 
both gifts. 

The envious man, seeing his comrade grasping at his own re- 
wards exultantly asks for a punishment ,for he seeks to live with 
the sight of one eye destroyed, if the avaricious man may be de- 
prived of both eyes, thus doubling his punishment. 

Then the wise Phoebus laughs at human destiny, and reports 
what an accursed thing jealousy is, to Jupiter; he says that while 
the jealous man rejoices in the disappointments of another, the 
wretch is happy enough to wish harm to himself. 



-20- 



* 



Notes . - l.l,praediscere-the infinitive to denote "purpose 
where we should expeet an 'ut 1 clause. This in not unusual however 
in writers that approach the language of every-day life. 

1 . 3 , ' dTversTs vo~tTs' , dat.of purpose with p"oscebant . 

1.5, 'HTs' , indirect obj.of optulit ;medium in apposition with 
se~se~,is direct object of optulit. 

1 . 7 , ' facilis • is used in its rarer sense of compliant , yield- 
ing. 

1.10, 1 nova' , new in the sense of unexpected, inexperienced be- 
fore . 

1.11, and 12, the tense of the verb is changed to the present; 
cohfTdens and ratus present participles. This tense continues thru 
1. 1*3, after which the perfect is again used. This indiscriminate 
change wo must attribute to the enthusiasm of the writer and his 
consequent carelessness in this matte-. 

1 . 15 , extinctus modifies the subject of degeret instead of 
1 umine, ae we should expect. 

1.16, refers to Bupplicium,1.14. 



-21- 



XXIII . 

The Pedlar and the Merchant. 

A ped«*iar made a magnificent statue of Bacchus and placed 
the god on display for sale. A certain nobleman desiring to place 
it in the gloomy resting place of a tomb, had arranged to buy it; 
another wanted to buy it that he might solicit divine help in the 
temple and pay vows duo to this sacred place, by presenting this 
statue . 

"Mow", said the statue-god, "you are to make a two-fold fore- 
cast for your wares when two unequal offers tempt you; you may eith 
er prefer to give me over' to the sacred dead as the ornament of a 
tomb, Or you may wish to make me a god. For you have a counterfeit 
reverence for the great and sacred and you hold in your band my 
death warrant. 

This fable is to those who have it in their power either to 
confer great favors or to injure. 



-22- 



Notes . - 1 . 8,expositwn-fecerB.t for fecerat et exposuit. 
1.3,funesta in sede shows the purpose of mercarT. 

1.5, Alter modifies nobilis vir understood. 

The whole clause Alter loco, goes with the predicate above. 

Cupiens mercari 1.4, also modifies alter. 

1.6, Supply sTc with reddere t ; i . e . 1 . 5 and 6 , that lie might pre- 
sent a god to the temples and thus pay-etc. 

1.8,spes refers to the hope of pay, hence, offer. 

Rome try to make lines 13, 14, refer to the absolute power 
which the vender has over the article he sells. He may praise its 
good qualities until it may bring a large pricejin this case the 
article is always valued by the buyer as of great worth. 



-23- 



XXIV. 

The Hunter and the Lion. 

Once a famous hunter and a lion were protracting a quarrel 
with finely drawn arguments. Just when they were wishing for a 
final settlement of their quarrel, they saw a tomo with a contin- 
uous frontage. Here a skillful artist had pictured a lion bowing 
its head and lying in the lap of a man. "I suppose you maintain 
that you are made very proud by the testimony of this picture. 
Vfhy it shows the animal is dead." 

Then the lion turning his downcast eyes toward the meaning- 
less representation gnashed his teeth and said in a voice choker; 
with rage, "Useless confidence in one of your own race comes into 
your mind, if you wish the hand of an artist to be your witness. 
Because if our cleverness admitted of another faculty, so that the 
lion could engrave rock with deft fingers, then you would see how 
the man silenced by a deep growl, would end his days in a hungry 
mouth . " 



-24- 



Notes 1.2,nobilis probably refers to venator,as the lion 
was usually considered, a noble animal. Hence this attribute with 
vena tor, makes him a worthy disputant, 

1.5, Icemen fleetentem is the subject of procubuisse . 

1.7, Scilicet introduces an ironical question. Can you now 
still say that you are made great, when you have this engraving as 
witness . 

I . 9 , graves , downcast ; inania, meaningless , a terra of contempt. 
1.11, Of .Vergil Aen.L 136,Tautane vos geueris tenuit, fiducia 
vestri? 

1.16,ut,how; This clause ut conderet is tine object of asp- 
icere£s,as well as is the ' hominein oppression! 



-25- 



XXVI. 

The Kid. and the Lion. 

Once when a hungry lion was travelling about, close at hand 
he saw a kid grazing on a high cliff. When he had first greeted 
the Kid he Raid,"! Ray leave that place so steep with its rocky 
crags, and do not seek pasture on those pricXly slopes; go search 
for the yellow flower of the trefoil through the grassy meadows, 
and the silvery willows and the refreshing thyme." 

The kid answers with a sigh, " I beg you, quit coaxing me with 
your false yet pleasing tales, for I am now safe. Fiver, granted that 
What you say is true, you do not give any credence to your> word^, 
for you conceal the greater dangers. Although the meaning of your 
words in themselves may be well founded, yon have this meaning sus- 
pected because you are a hungry counselor. 



-26- 



Notes ♦ - l.S,Oomminus,near at hand,shows that the distance 
between the lion and kid was one of height. The lion was near the 
cliff and could thus converse with the kid. 

1.3, Fit prior 'heus 1 inquit-; this is the very beginning of 
the shrewed lion's politic speech. He does not precipitately urge 
his counsel at first sight of the woif ; first he greets the kid in 
a civil way, that his advice may seen the disinterested counsel of 
a friend. 

The trefoil is said by Keightley to be the arborescent luc- 
erne. It has a yellow flower and the goat's liking for it was pro- 
verbial . 

I 1 s 5 and H are the nearest approach of Avianus to poetic- 
al language . 

l,7,gemens 1r a strong worn/nut the kid was fully conscious 
of its danger in Right of the lion. 

1.10, his dictTs is dative of possessor ,non facis fiden esse 
di c tTs . 

1.11, rectis verbis-your direct words.' 



-27- 



XXVII . 
The Grow and. the Urn. 

A thirsty crow had. noticed an immense urn which contained 
a few drops of water in the bottom. When she had tried ror a long 
tine to pour the water out on the ground so she might quench her 
thirst a lit tie, and when no effort gave any opportunity to do this, 
she impatiently brought every craft of her ingenuity to bear. She 
put pebbles into the urn until the water ^rose and gave h^r an eas- 
y opportunity to drink. 

This shows that wisdom is greater than mere physical streng- 
th, for by wisdom the crow accomplished the end that she wished for. 



Notes .- 1.2,cohtinuisset ,hare the subjunctive is used to 
show the jar as the crow had observed it. It depends on aspexerat. 

1.4,it±raiaiB sitim,some (a little Mf her thirst. The ingen- 
uity here ascribed to the crow ho re belongs to an African species, 
so Aelira tells us. 

1 . 7 ,H<;oresoens Modifies unda in 1.8. 

This fable teaches that 'knowledge is power. 1 



XXXI. 



The Mouse and the Ox. 

A little mouse wandering about is said to have dared trO 
feve- dar e d to bite an iiaiaen.Be ox. with its tiny tooth. When the 
mouse had well wounded him with its sharp teeth, 3.t safely hid in 
its own hole. The ox threatened the fierce little animal by shak- 
ing his great neck, and still angry as ho whs, he could nowhere see 
the mouse he wanted to attack. Then the spiteful little creature, 
bantering the enraged ox, uttered terrible threats with great warmth 
"Not because you have inherited a large body, have your parents also 
given you power. Learn then what self-reliance there is in a lit- 
tle mouths and you will do whatever the mouse population desires." 



-30- 



Notes . - i.i,oberrans-making its rounds. The word is often 
ueed of a spy, wandering about secretly, so here the word fiaay imply 
that the ox knew nothing of the mouse's presence. 

1.2,ab used with the ablative brings exiguo dente into prom- 
inence. The simple ablative of means might have been used. 

1.5, licet usually is followed by the subj. although the in- 
dicative sometimes occurs . ( minetur ) . 

1.6, esse, the predicate of quern. This construction is used 
after videt. tfsse is stronger than is; it means exists. Literally 
does not see that the one he would at tack, exists. 

The moral of this fable, all successful politicians must 

learn . 



-51- 



XXXII . 
The Farmer and the Ox. 

A farmer left his cart in a muddy road and his oxen harness 
ed under the irksome yoke, feeling sure that the gods would help 
his fortunes on account of the vows he but vainly made, while he 
himself remained idle. Hercules , the driver, for the Buppliant harl 
invoked this god in his prayers, s. id to the farmer; -"Has ten to 
urge on your struggling oxen with blows and learn to assist the 
slow wheels with your own hands. Then when you have grappled with 
the task with ail your strength, it is right to win over the gods 
to your wishes. Know, however, that the gods are not moved by idle 
prayers and call upon the willing gods by acting yourself. 



-32- 



Motes 1.3,frustra is explained by resideret . 

1 . 4, re Ride ~6 , to remain idle. This .'leaning of the word is an 
old as Plautus. Ferre opem numina is ind. disc . after c^nfidens. 

1. 5, Tirythius refers to Hercules. This god was born at Tir- 
yns. after he had murdered his children he was ordered by the ora- 
cle at Delphi to return there. Ho drove the sacred oxen of Geryon 
into Tiryns,so Hesiod tells us; hence the name given hin here, rec- 
tor. With this title he may well give advice to this shiftless far 
mer about his oxen. BmnraTa ab astrTs is a bit of bombast, as well 
as infit. 

1.10, animus here means wishes or determination , a by no means 
uncommon usage. 

This fable voices our familiar proverb , Heaven helps those 
who help themselves. 



-33- 



XXXIII . 

The Goose that Laid the Golden Egg. 

A certain man had a goose filled with some gold producing 
germ; it often laid a golden egg in the nest. Nature had fixed this 
limit to the superior fowl, namely that it should not be permitted 
to lay two eggs at once. But the master anticipating that this 
source of wealth might vanish from him, did not suffer the delays 
ruinous to his gains , thinking surely he would get the value of the 
bird by its death, the value of the bird that was so rich in its un- 
failing bounty. 

After he had plunged the threatening knife into its body 
which he had already stripped, when he saw that it did not have its 
usual eggs and that he had be^en deceived in such a way, he cried a- 
loud. For he suffered the punishment due his own deserts. So it is 
right to refuse the everyday prayers of those who ask everything 
of the gods at once. 



-34- 



Notes l.l,cuid.ara is dative of possessor. 

1.2, quae flare t , characteristic clause, Hence the subjunctive. 

1.3, voluerT superbae , dative , indirect obj.of fixer^t. 

1 . 5 , cupidufli here the attribute of the doninuis transferred 
to the votum. 

1 . 7 , se /understood is the subject of referre. 
i.9,niiiax shows the cruelty of the act. 

l.li,ingem:umt shows his realization of his punishment and 

loss . 

1.13, qui — poscunt modifies his in 1.14; he re poscunt has two 
objects ,cuncta and deos,a rather eonunon usage. 



-35- 



XXXIV. 

The Ant and the Cricket. 



Whoever permits his youth to pass in idleness and with no 
eye to the future does not fear the evils of life, and worn out by 
old age, when once the decline of life is before him, alas he will 
often seek aid from another in vain. 

An ant in midsummer reserved the fruit of her toils for win- 
ter and stored it in little hills. But when the earth assumed its 
wintry shroud of white hoar frost, and vrhen the meadows lay hidden 
under a coat of ice, not being able to face the winter storms be- 
caiise hnr body is numbed, she assorts the damp grain in her ov/n 
home. A variegated cricket as a beggar asked her with entreaties 
for food, the very cricket which had formerly made the fields re- 
sound with its plaintive singing. It said that it had also worked 
out the summer days in singing when the threshing floor had beat 
out its ripened crops. Then the tiny ant thus accosted the crick- 
et, for they were accustomed to prolong their life together, " .Since 
my subsistence has been procured by my own labor, in winter I take 
a long rest. Now in these extreme times it remains for you to 
dance , since your former life was spent in singing." 



-•66- 



Note s ♦- 1 . 1 , transisse , the perfect infinitive, to have passed, 
to be over. 

1.2, does not imply that one should anticipate evil, but that 
one should provide against evil. 

l;"3,senao denotes not only that old age but senility, the 
infirmities that accompany old age. 

1 . 5, labores , fruits of labor, a Vergilian use. 

This is the fourth instance of bringing in the general truth 
at the beginning. Ail of the fables but four have the moral at the 
end . 

l . : 3, Rolibus , ablative of time limiting erep.tos. 

1. 9, pigrm here not lazy but benumbed (toy cold). 

1.10, grama is moist by the frost that has soeped thru. 

1 . 11 , Discolor may denote the varied coat of brown and yell- 
ow as contrasted with the ant's dull hue, or it may mean simply din- 
gy, in which case the word has bean substituted for decolor. Thin 
word is used to refer to a changed color and may imply a contrast 
between the cricket's present ajjpearanoe and that of his singing 
days. The cicada is not here mentioned and it is only from the 
title of the fable that we know with what discolor is to bo inter- 
preted^ serious fault. 

1 . 16 ,continuare vitam pariter solent,to prolong life side 
by side from year to year, both surviving the cold. 
1.19, ultima tempora, severe weather. 
1 . P,0 jGantibus,' for' in cantibus'. 



XXXV. 

The Monkey 1 s Twins . 

The story goes that a monkey gave birth to twins and. sepa- 
rated her children for different lots; for one she reared in ten- 
der est af f ection , while she was filled with hatred for the other. 
Once when a threatening alarm of attack began to terrify the moth- 
er, she hurried her children away with unequal treatment. She car- 
ries her favorite in her arms close to her loving heart, while she 
takes up the less favored one on her hack. But when her feet are 
so tired that she can not stand., in her flight she puts dov/n the 
one in her paws. The other winding his arms about her shaggy neck, 
clings to her and escapes with his mother against her will. Soon 
he s'uecefis to the kisses of his chosen brother , being the only de- 
scendant of his aged mother. 

Thus neglected, things bring pleasure to many and Hope, re- 
versing the order of things, brings men of low estate to happier 
fortunes . 



-38- 



Notes ,-1 . 4 , Alter! us is obj.gen. Literally , 1 she swells rill- 
ed with hatred of the Other' . 

1. 5, tumultus, sudden outbreak of war or foar of attack. 

.1.8, For sucipiente ,we should expect susceptura. Then, she 
takes up and lifts to her back, 

1.10, Opposi turn , in her ] >aws . 

It is thought by Lachmann that the last four verses are an 
addition of later tines. 



-39- 



XXXIX. 

The Soldier who Burned his Arms. 

Once a soldier, battered in many a battle had vowed that he 
would light a fire and consign all his anas to it ,both the arms 
which the (lying had given to him as victor* and those lie had been 
able to take from the retreating enemy. Meanwhile chance favored 
his hopes, and remembering his vows he began to bring his arras, 
piece by piece to the lighted pyre. A trumpet , deprecating this pun- 
ishment with a hoarse whisper explains that it has come to the 
flames of the pyre thru no fault of its own. "Though no darts have 
struck your shoulders , you may yet affirm that the darts were driv- 
en by my strength. But I hurled weapons only with blasts of wind 
and with sounding tones, and this with a subdued sound, be the stars 
themselves ray witnesses." 

The soldier putting the rebounding trumpet back into the 
crackling flames , said, "Nov/ more severe punishment and pain will 
torture you, for granted that you can attempt nothing aggressive 
yourself , for this very reason you are all the worse to deal with 
because you make others quarrel." 



-40- 



Notes . - 1.2, dare ignlbus,is quite common. 
1 . 3,i3o riens ttirba, falling in the crowd of battle plain. 
1.4,ab hoste eapT, would really nean taken by an enemy , r-atln— 
er than from. 

1.7, eulpam is the direct obj.of inraeritum,a somewhat rare 
usa^e. Inmeri turn, agrees with so. 

1.14, nuno , now s ince your avowa 1 . 

1 . 13 ,hoe , ablative of cause ;you are the worse to deal With 
for this very reason, that 3'ou make others( to bo )bad. 

The omission of os after saevior is unusual; this might pos- 
sibly be construed with poena dolorque in 1.14, since the interven- 
tion of one verse would, not make it impossible with Avianus. 



XL. 

The Leopard and the Ox. 

A leopard distinguished by its beautiful jaottled coat went 
walking among the othe r * animals, its compeers in honor. But be- 
cause the mighty lions had no variegated backs, he immediately 
thought they were a sorry race. He condemned the other animals 
for their mean looking countenances , thinking lie was the sole pat- 
tern of nobility. A shrewed fox reproached him, re joicing in his 
fresh attire and ..onvincingiy showed that beauty was vain. "Go 
thy ways" he s< id, "and put great trust in thy blazoned youth, while 
to lie understanding is the fairer possession. And let us admire 
more the gifts of mental power than those who are resplendent 
with comely figures." 



-42- 



Note?? . - l.l,puichro pec tore pardus-alliteration. Avianus 
doer? not embellish his fables with rhetorical devices Por the most 
part . 

1.2, in ira is certainly corrupt ; concerning this there have 
been many conjectures. Lachmannus suggests abnuit Tre-which would 
show the leopard's disdain of the other animals , ' refused to go'. 
Withof who things the fable is aimed at the purpuratT officials 
of the Imperial court of the fourth and fifth centuries , says in 
Tre is for in honore,the phrase modifying con-similes-his compeers 
in honor. 

1.3, grave's introduces another feature of contrast between 
the light graceful movements of the panther and the stolid ways 
of the lion. The panther, on account of its bright spots and its 
grace was considered a type of;* beauty. 

1. 4, his-abl.of source , limiting rebus understood. Prom these 
things he believed etc. 

1.6, implies that the leopard thought this , although there 
is nothing in the construction to show that it dopends on credidit. 

l.ll,queat — ,so long as it is permitted me to have under- 
standing. 



-43- 



1 



~a( oefore consonants ), ab( before a vowel or a consonant ), prep. wit h 
abl . ,by ,from. 

abies,etis ,f . ,the fig-tree, silver- fir. 

aboleo", olevT, oli tus /ere , to destroy , efface ,XIV: 12 , 

abstraho, traxi, tractus,ere,to detach, pull away, draw off. V: 15. 

acoendo ,eendT, census , ere , to kindle, set on fire, light, arouse, pro- 
voke . 

accresco( ad-c- ),crevlt,cretus,ere,to grow, arise , increase . 
acerbus ,adj .harsh, bitter, severe . 
acta,ae,f . ,a sea-shore, sea-beach, 
-aet-. 

ad, prep .with acc . , to , toward, against ; among, near, at , till, 
a d c e nd~o- v . a . - c e n d"o . 

addo ,didT,ditUB ,ere , to give or impart to , annex, add. 

1. ad-e7^,ii itus,Tre,to go to, come to, approach. 

2. ad- eoT,adv. so far as, so much, to such a degree. 

. ad-fTrmo , ( aff- )avT,at\is /are , to strengthen, confirm, encourage . 
ad-f or( aff- ) , atus , ari , dep . to speak to ,address , accost . 
ad-hibe"o ,uT,itus /ere , to turn to, apply, add to, bestow, summon, fur- 
nish. 

admoneo^nuT,nitus ,~ere , to remind , suggest , warn, XII : 8 . 
ad-mo veo^raovT, mo tus /ere , to move towards , bring near, apply. XVI II : 17, 
address . 

ad-orno /avi , "atus /Ere , to provide , equip ,make ready , decorate . XL : 11 . 
ad-oro ,"avT ,"atus /are , to worship , adore , implore , honor . 
ad-sum, adfuT,adesse , to be present, be at hand, XXXIV: 3. 

-44- 



aecus xxil : 6 ( ojuaj^^) ^o^ ^- . \^-^ , - 

aequ~o,avT atus/are,t« raise, equalize ,levol, attain, reach .' 

aequor,oris,n,an even surf ace , plain. IV :3 . 

aestTvus,adj . , suraner- like, summer . 

aetas ,"atis,f . ,age , years , time . XXXIV : 5 . 

aether ,eris ,m. , air , atmosphere IV: 7. 

aggredior , gressus ,T ■> dep . , to approach , address , apply to , under take , 
assume. XVIII : 11. 

agito~,"avT "atus ,are , to urge , incite , harass , devise , debate . XXXI 1 : 7 , 
ago - ,egi, actus ,ere ; set in mo tmn, drive, advance , do, discuss . XXIII : 8 . 
a"io, v . defect ., to say yes , affirm. XXII : (J . 
1 . al.ienus ,adj ; f oreign , alien, strange , another ' s . 

alinentum ,T,n , nutriment , provisions , food, fuel . XXXIV : 11. 

alius ,a,ud, ( gen. alius ) , adj .pro . , another, other, different . 

alter, tera, terura, gen. alt erTus or terius,dat.alteri;pren.adj . ,one, 

the other of two. 
alveus,T,m. ,a hollow, cavity , bed. 

amans ,ntis , adj . wi th eomp . and sup . fond, loving , affectionate . XVIII : 4 . 
ambiguus ,adj . ,?/avering, uncertain, ambiguous . XXII : 1 . 
amf ractus , v . an-f ractus . 
amioi tia , ae . f . friendship. 

amictus ,us ,n. an outer garment ; duplex, of double texture. IV: 9. 

1 . amicus , adj .with comp . and sup . , friendly , kind, pleasing . 

2. amicus ,i ,m. ,a friend, patron, protector, 
a-moveo, "oir , "otus ,~ere , to remove , avert , take away . 
amor, oris ,m. , love , affection. XXXV: 3. 

-45- 



anfraetus,us,m. ,a turning, bending round, ciroui tous route. xxxi : 4. 

an:uaal,aiis,n. ,a living be±ng,animal. 

animajLis ,e ,adj . ,of air, aerial, vi tal . 

animus ,T,m. ,tne rational soul ,mind, reason. 

anser ,eris ,m. ,a ^oose . XXXIII : 1 . 

ante , adv . , f irs t , soone f> , before . 

Apollo, god of sun, light ; also called Phoebus. 

approbb~,( ad-p- ) ,"avT,7TtUf? ,"are , to assent to,f avor, approve , obtain 

approval for. XL: 8. 
ap to , avT , ait us ,Hre , t o f i t , ad j us t . V : 6 . 
aqua , ae , f . water , rain . 

ara,ae,f.,a structure for sacrifice., altar, monument . 
aratura,T,n. ,a plough. XI I : 3. 
arduum,T,n. ,a steep place, dif f icul ty . 
arduus,adj . , steep , high, hard, dif f icul t . 
"area, ae ,f. , threshing floor, 
argutus ,adj . shrewed, active, lively .XL : 7 . 
arma ,l»rura , n , arris , we apon s . XXXIX : 2 . 
ars,artis,f . , practical skill, practise, art , trick, 
arte", adv .with coi lp . and sup . , closely , fast , firmly . 
aritf ox , icis ,m. and f.,a professional nan, artist , author , builder, 
master . 

art us , adj . , close , narrow, strait , short . 

arvum,T,n, cultivated or ploughed land, field, glebe . 

arvus , adj . , ploughed, arable . 

arx , arci s , f . , cas tie, ci t ide 1 , f ortres s . XXII : 2 . 

-46- 



fcsellus,T,ra.a little ass ,ass l s ,ooit . 
asimus ,T ,m . an ass . V : 5 . 

aspioio , ( ad-Kp- ) ,~exT,ectus ,ere , to look at , observe , examine , behold. 
XXIV: 15. 

ast ,conj .( older and poetical for at), but. 
astrum,T,n. , a heavenly body , star, constellati n.XIX:6. 
at ,oonj . ,but ,but on the other hand, meanwhile, 
at que ,conj . ,and. 

attritus,( adt- )adj .with eonp. battered, hardened. X^XIX : 1 . 
audax , fcicis , ad j . daring , bold , courageous , epiri ted . 
audeo~,ansusr-u:uq,ere , to dare , venture , risk , he bold . 
aura,ae,f . the air ,wind. IV: 10 . 
aureus ,adj .', golden, guilded. 
auris,is,f .ear. V : 13. 
aurum,T,n. ,gold. 

auster , tri ,ra. , the south wind, south. 
aus"um,T,n. ,a bold deed, reckless act. 
avis , is , omen, race . 

avus ,T,m.a grand-father, forefather*, ancestor . 
axTs ,is ,m. wagon, an axle . XXXII : 1 . 

B. 

Bacchus ,T,m. , the son of Jupiter and Semele,the god of wine and 

inspiration ; urine . 
blandus ,adj .with comp.and sup. , flattering, caressing, xvi :il . 
bonus , a, ui>i, good, n.plur. 

-47- 



bona, used as subst. goods, good quali ties , property .V: ?> . 

llore"as ,ae ,m.-the North wind. IV: 1. 

bos ,bovis ,m.and f., ox, cow. Plur ., cattle . 

brachiura,T,n. ,the fo re-arm,. l owe r arm, claws. 

brev~T,adv.in a little while , poor. , briefly . 

brevis , e , ad j . short , narrow , shallow , brief . 

bustum,T,n. , funeral-pyre , mound, tomb . 

_C. 

eadTiver ,eris ,n . , a dead body , corpse, carcase . 
caespes , itis ,j 1. , turf , out sod. 
calaraus ,T,m. , reed, cane. XVI : b . 
calco","avT,"atus ,are , to tread, trample .X: 11 . 
oale~o,uT-ere , to be warm, not , glow, be inflamed.XXIV:?. 
calliditas ,atis ,f . snrev/dness , skill , aptness /shyness . 
ealor,oris ,m. ,warmth,heat . 

campus ,T,m. ,a p Lain, field, campus , ( arena, the theatre )XXVII : 3 
candens ,entis,adj .shin >ng, bright , white, 
carina, ae ,f . a reed,iiane. 

cantus , us ,ra . , singmf^ , song , music , incantation , eharm . 
cai>elia , ae ,f . a she-goat . XXVI : 1 . 

capio~,cepT,cax>tus ,ere , to take in hand, seize, grasp, take. 
capto~,avi ,"atus,"are , to strive after, seize ,hunt ,long for, XXII 
caput ,itis ,n . ,head. 

careo",uT,it"urus ,ere , to be without, free from, refrain from. 



oaro , carnis , f . ,f lesh . 

oarpo~,psT,ptus,ere, to pass over, take one's way. IV: 4. 
carus ,adj . dear, beloved, esteemed, costly . 
causa, ae ,f . reason ,notive , pre text .IV: 5. 
cav"o,"avT,a'tuB,a're, to hollow out, excavate, pierce through. 
cavus,adj.,a hollow, excavated, as subst.m.,a hole, opening. 

1. cerlo,cespT,ces!?u!=:,ere,to go, go away, give way , yield, grant , concede . 

2. cedo,plur .cette,old imper. /hither with it , give, bring here, tell, 

say , out with it . 
delo,^vT, situs ,7Tre , to keep ignorant of, conceal from, elude. 
certamen,ini8,n. ,a decisive contest, dispute, struggle, rivalry. XIX: . 7 >. 
cer t a tin , adv . in rival ry , emul ous ly , j e a 1 ous ly , v?i t h oompe ti t i on . 
cervix ,Tcis , f . , neck , nape , throat . XXXI : 5 . 
cetera , adv ., for the rest , otherwise , in all else. 
ceterum,adv. ,in other respects, else, now, besides, yet, still, but . 
ceterus , adj . , the rest of, the remainder; as subs t., the rest, others, 
cicada , ae , f . , the cicada , grass-hopper , tree-cricket . XXXI v • 15 . 
circum,adv . ,all around, round about, IV:7, 
circumdo ,d"edT,d"atus , are , to place around, surround. IV : 9 , 

1 . ci to , adv . quickly , speedily , soon . 

2. cito,"avT,"atus,"are, to rouse, excite, urge, call . 
ci tus , adj . quick , swift , rapid. 

eoepio , coepT, coeptus , ere , to begin . commence . 
coeptum,T,n. ,a beginning, undertaking, 
collum ,T, n . , neck . 
coma,ae,f . , hair , branches . 



-49- 



ooraminus , aclv . , in close contest , hand to hand, at close quarters* 

XXVI: 2. 
coioiounis ,e ,adj . common . V: II . 
1 . oompello{ conp- )puiT,pulsis , ere, to drive together, collect , assemble , 
compel, urge . 

2 . compeHo~( conp- )"avT,a"tus ,«re , to address , rebuke , accuse . 

com-pono , ( conp- ) ,posuT,positus ,ere , arrange , set tie . XXXIII : 4 . 
comprehend"^, or eomprendo",dT, bus , ere , to seize, catch hold of, grasp, 
comprehend. 

conciiio,"avT,"atus /are , to reconcile, obtain, win, XXXII : 10. 
concretus , ad j . stiff , icy , congealed . 

condioio ,ohis ,f . , agreement , terms, stipulation, condition, 
oondo , didi , di tus , ere , to conceal ,bury . IX : 16 . 
coheneto , -nexus , ere , to bind together , connect , link . XVI : 7 . 
con-f ero ,contulT, eoniatus , confer ^e , to bring together , interlock, 
unite.XViii:o. 

eonficio~,f eoi, fectus ,e^e,to make or do thouroughly , accomplish, 
furnish, XXXI : 3. 

eonf Tdehs,entis,adj .with sup. bold, daring, confident . XXII : 11 . 

ooh-f ido,fTsus , sum, ere , to trust , confide , rely upon, believe . 

con-gemino ,"avT/atus , are , to redouble , multiply . XXI 1 : 18 . 

con-gero ,gessT,gestus ,ere , to col leet , accumulate , load, bring to- 
gether .XIV: 4. 

congredior,gressus,T,dep. ,to meet , fight , contend, join battle, 
congressus ,us ,m . , a meeting , interview , fight , encounter . 
coniurllt us ,adj ., bound together by an oath, allied. 

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eonlido ,lTsT,iTsus ,ere , to dash to peices , batter, crush , shatter. 
XVIII: 12. 

conloco ,~avT , "a tus , ar e , t o emp 1 oy , us e , s e t up . 
con-p — , v . comp- . 

co'riRero",-8eruT,-Re:r'tup ,ere,to unite, bring together ;-iurgium, dis- 
pute . 

c7)nsiiTator,o"ris ,m. a counsellor .XX VI : 12 . 

consilium ,T,n. , consultation, plan, counsul , measure , plan, judgement , 
a council. 

eon-similis ,e ,adj .entirely similar , very lilce.XL:l. 
con-sis to", s titi, s titus ,ere , to stand firm,hal$, stay, depend on, 
consist in. 

co"n-soci"o,"avT,'atus , are , to share , associate , j oin . XIX : 4 . 
consortium ,T, n . , fellowship , participation . IX : ?,?> . 
constituo" ,uT,utus , ere , to set up, establish, give, determine. XXXI :io. 
con- s to" , s t i tT , s t~t ur i is ,~a r e , t o agree , c orrespon d , e n dure , b e settled, 
to remain. 

cons truo , s truxi ,s true tus , ere , t o pile up , accumulate , erect , build . 
con-temno, tempsT, temptus,ere , to esteem lightly , disdain, defy , 
disregard, slight . 
1 . oontemptus , despised, contemptible , vile , abject . 
2 . co n t emp t us , us ,m . , con t era} > t , scorn , di sgrace , sli gh t . 

contine"o , tinuT, ten tus, "ere , to hold together , res train, contain , 
bound . 

eontinuo, adv . , immediately , forthwith . 



continuo , avi , a tus , are , to pro Long , continuo , extend . XXXIV : .16 . 
convenio , venT, ventus ,Tre , to come to a decision, be agreed on, he 

settled; come to, come upon. IX: 6. 
cornTx ,Teis , f . a crow . 
cornu,us,n. ,a horn, antler. XVIII : 5. 

corporeu^ , ad j . physical , fleshly , corporeal , substantial . XL : IP, . 
corpus , oris , n . , body , frame . V : 15 . 

0orripi"o,ripuT,reptU8,ere,to seize, at tack, reproach. v : 14. 
cortex, icis ,m, and f . ,the bark, stem, hull. XVI : 10. 
credo ,didX, di tus , ere , to think , beleive , suppose . 
crepito ,- ,- ,7T v, e , to creak, crackle . XXXIX : 13 . 
ore8CO,crevT,cretus,ere , to rise , prosper . xx I I : 11. 
crimen , inis , n . , a disgrace , offense , judgement , accusation . 
croceus,adj . , saffron-colored, yellow, golden. 
cubo",uT,itum/are, to lie down, recline , slope . 
culpa , ae , f . a f aul t , guil t , def ec t , Mischief . XXXIX : 7 . 
cum, prep, with abl.,with,in the company of IV;2. 
©urn, con j. of tine, at the time when V:4. 
cunctus ,adj . all together, the whole, entire, ail . 
cupa , ae , f . , a cask , tun , barr e 1 . 
cupidus , ad j . eager , desirous . 

cupio,TvT ,itus ,ere , to desire, he eager for, long for, greedy for. 
curro , cucurrT, cursus , ere , to run ,move quickly , hasten . 
cursus , us , m. , running, course, advance at a run, access. 
curvus,adj . , winding, or oked, curved, 
cytisus ,T,ra. shrubby clover. XXVI : 5 . 



D. 

daiano ,avT,atus ,~are , to condemn, convict , sentence , doom, ( devote . ) 
damnum danmum-n.loss. 

de, prep. with abl.,down from, from, of ,out of, about. 
d¥bilitas/atis,f . , lameness , debility , weakness , helplessness . 
debili to ,~avT , atus , are , to lame , cripple , unnerve, weaken . 
debi turn ,T , n . , a deb t . 

debi tus , adj . , due , appropriate , doomed, destined. 
( deceo,cui ),-,-, "ere, ( only Srd.pers. )to be seemly, be fitting or 
proper .v; i . 

1. decido,cidT,-,ere, to fall down, fall off, sink down, die, perish. 

2 . deoTdo , cTdT, cTsus , ere ,-to cut off, cut away , decide, set tie, agree. 
d^cipTo,c^pT,oe^ptus,e»"e , to ensnare, ellude, cheat , deceive . 
d"e-color, "oris , adj . , discolored, faded, colored dark, dingy, 
decurro,cucurrT, cursus ,ere , to run down, hasten down, hasten . XVI : 3 . 
decus,oris ,n. , decoration, dignity, beauty .XXIII : 10. 

d"ocu tio, oils sT,cussus, ere, to cast off.IV:6. 
d"eh-duco , duxT, ductus , ere , to lead away , divert . 
deduct us, adj . , lowered, unambitious, modest. 

de-flecto,f lexi,flexus ,ere, to bend aside, turn away . XXXIX : 7 . 

de~-formis,e,adj .with conp. deformed, misshapen. 

de-fungor , func tus ,T, to discharge , perform, finish . 

d"eli tTsco", ( -"esco ) , tuT, - , ere , to hide away , conceal , lurk . 

de-mo ror , "atus , "arT, dep . , to detain , retard , delay . XVI : 15 . 

dehs,dentis,m.a tooth. 

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denudo , "avi , a tus , are , to lay bare , expose , uncover . V : 15 . 
depluo , uT , - , ere , t o rain down .17:8. 
deVo>io',posui,positus,ere,to lay away, put aside, 
deprehendo ,or deprendo ,dT,sus,ere , to detect, find out , discover . 
v : 13 . 

desero", ruT, r tus , ere , to leave , forsake , abandon . 
de~-sisto~,stitT,stitus,ere , to cease, give over, desist from, leave 
off. 

1 . despectus,adj .with sup. contemptible, scorned. 

2. despectus,us,m.a looking down, view, prospect . 
d^spicio~,axT,ectiis,ere , to look down upon, disdain, despise. XVI : 1 
d"esum,fui,esse,futurum, to be away, be absent, be wanting, fail, 
de traho , traxT, trac tus , ere , to take away , remove . V : 3 . 
deus,T,m.,a god, deity. 

dTc"o,dTxT,dictuP!,ere, to speak , say , tell relate , state . 
dies , gen . dieT, or dTe ,ra . , day . XXXI V : 14 . 

dif f ero , distulT,dTlatus ,f erre . , separate, prolongs . XXII : 10 . 
dTgnus ,adj . , worthy , meritorious , suitable , becoming, fitting. 

1. dTiectus,adj .loved, dear. 

2. dTlectu8 ,or delectus, us ,m. ,a selection, destinction, levy , draft . 

dTripio,uT,eptus,ere, to tear asunder, or in pieces. XVI II: 14. 
disco, didicT,-, ere, to learn, acquire, become acquainted with. 
diseut:'to~,oussT,cussus,ere,to dash to pieces, shatter, scatter, re 
move, destroy . 

dis-iungo",unxT,unctus ,ere, to unyoke , sever, separate , estrange .XVI 
IS. 

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dis-par ,ariR ,adj . , different, unequal, ill-mat eked. XXI I I : 8 . 
dis-pono ,posuT,posi tus , ere , offer , lay down , arrange . XXXI 1 : 3 . 
diR-similiR ,e ,adj .with eomp.and eup. dissimilar, different .XXXV: 6. 
diR-Roci"o,"avT,"atuB /are , to disjoin, disunite, estrange .XVIII :12, 
1 . dTs tine tus , adj .with oomp . , separate , distinct , decorated, studded, im- 
pressive . 

S .( dTs tine tus , )m. ,only abl. Ring; -variety . 
diu , adv . , a long t ii is , l ong , long wtoi 1 e . 
diurnuR , ad j . , by day , daily . 

dT-vello , vellT,voisus or vulsus ,ere, to tear apart,sever.XVIII:3. 
diversus,or divorsus ,adj .with sup. -turned, different ways, opposite, 

contrary , apart . 
dTves , itis , adj . wealthy , rich . 

divido , vTsT, vTsus , ere , to divide , part , arrange . XXXV : 2 . 
1 . dTvus ,T, ad J . godlike , divine . 
S . dTvus ,T,m. god , divine being . 

d"o,dedT,datus ,"are, give , render , of fer ,-verbura, do , say. IX : 20. 

doceo,ui , otuR , ere , to teach , inform , sHow, tell . IV : 15 . 

docilis , e , adj . teachable , docile , tractile . 

doc tus, adj .with eomp.and sup. , learned, experienced, skillful, clever, 
doleo ,uT,ituruR ,ere , to duffer, be in pain, grieve, lament . 
dolo"/avT ,~atUR ,aVe , to chip with an axe , be labor , drub . 
dolor , oris ,m. , pain , suffering , anguish . 
(IoIur ,T,m.a device , fraud, Rnare , contrivance . 
donee, conj .until. IV: 13. 

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dohum ,T,m . a gif t , pre r en t , o f i e r i rig sacrifice. 

dominus , T, n . mas t e r , lord , owner , ho r t . x XX 1 1 1:5. 

donio ,uT,ituR ,are , to domes tic ate , Rubdue , break, master. V: 14, 

dorsum ,T, n . or dorsus ,1 ,m. back , ridge , cliff . XXXV : 8 . 

duco , uxT, uc tus , ere , to lead , guide , draw , bring . 

dum,oonj ., while , at the time that, during the time. 

dumus,T,m.a thorn-bush, bramble ,plur . ,a thicket .XIX: 1 . 

duo", ae , o , num , two .XXI 1 : 3 . 

duplex, icis , twofold , double . I V: 9 . 

duplicT) ,"avT,"atus /are , to double , repeat , increaRe . 

1. 

~e( only before consonants ) ,ex( before vowels and consonants ), prep 

with abl . , out , out of, from. 
©Of- , v . eff- . 

( editum,T ) ,n. only plur. , heights , elevations . 
editus ,adj .with comp. ,hi ; fn,lofty , exposed. 
l.eT-duc7),duxi , due tus ,ere , to lead forth, take away /march out, raise, 
bear , build. 

2 ."educo , avT,~atus /are , to bring up , train , educate , support , produce , 
raise . 

effeetum,T,n. ,an effect. 

effund*o , fudT ,fusus ,ere , to pour out , shed, spread abroad, drive out 
Rend forth. XVI : 17. 



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ego,gen.meT,dat .mikT or mT, ace . and abl.me;plur.nom.and acc.nos. 
gen . nostrum ; dat . and. abl . nobis . Is t pers . pron . I . Plur . we ,us , 
etc . 

e"-iaitt"o,mTsi, missus, ere, to send f or th, drive. XVI 1 1 : 3. 
e"-n i t e "o , t uT , - , "e r e , gleam , bri g&t en , be di s t ingui s hed . XL : 12 . 
e~-nTtor ,-,nTxus ,or-nTsus ,T,dep. , to mount, ascend, struggle, strive . 
eo ,TvT , iturus ,Tre , to go, proceed , march ,pap;r; . XIV : 10 . 
erectus ,adj .with coiap. , upright, elevated, lofty. 
erigcT, rexT, rectus , ere , to lift, raise , elevate . 

e-ripi"o,ipuT,eptus,ore, to wrest on, or take away, ext or t , rescue . 
error , "oris ,m. wandering , s tro I ling , e rror . XVI 11:5. 
eruo ,uT,utus , ere , root out, dig up, XVI: 1. 
e"suri"o-,Tturus,"ere,to be hungry, suffer hunger, 
et ,conj . ,and IV: 8. 

etiam,adv. ,and also, still, yet, now too , indeed, by all. means. Ktiam 

at que etiam, again and again, 
exaninus ,e ,adj . lifeless , dead, breathless . 
excelled , - ,oelsus ,ere , to surpass , excel . 
excelsus ,adj . high, lofty , noble , excellent . 

exemplum , i , n . a sample , imi t ation , portrait , copy , example , pa 1 1 ern , 
lesson. XL: 6. 

exiguus ,adj .with sup . , strict , lit tie , petty , poor ,pal try . 
exosU8,P. , ha ting, detesting. 

ex-plico ,~avT,and uT,a~tus or itus,~are,to unfold, unroll , loosen, 
explain, set free. XIX: 8. 



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ex-p"ono ,posuT,positus ,ere , to set forth, exhibit , explain . 
expositus ,adj . open,aoce^sible . 

expressus,adj .with comp . distinct , clear, plain, real . 
ex-saturo,-,atus ,are , to satiate ,sate ,XXXV: 4, 

ex-stingiio ,or extinguo ,nxT,nctus , ere , extinguish, destroy . xxil : 15 . 
ex— superb - or exupero ,avT,"atus ,"are , to mount up, tower, excel, be 

superior, surpass . xvi :20. 
exuviae ,-"arum,f. that which is stripped off. — leonis,-sKin. V: 5. 

F. 

facile , aclv . easily , readily . 

facilis ,e ,adj . ,easy , without difficulty . 

faoio,fecT,f actus, ere; to make do, produce, cause, bring about. V: 3. 

f aliaciter , adv . with sup . deceitfully , f al sely . XXVI : 7 . 

fallax , acis ,adj . fallacious , deceitful , deceptive . 

f alio , f ef eliT, f alsus , ere , to deceive , dupe , delude . V: 17 . 

faina , ae , f . a report , rumor , tradition , fame , reputation . XXXV : 1 . 

fast only nom.and acc. sing. )n. divine law, right, justice. XXXII : 10. 

fateor,fassus/erT,dep. , to confess, own, grant , acknowledge . 

fatTgo~,aVT/atus /are , to tire, vex, torment , harass ,fret .XXXI : 7 . 

fat urn ,T, n. prediction, oracle , fate, bad fortune . 

fera,ae,f.a wild beast, wild animal. 

f ero , t ulT, latus , ferre , to carry off , snatch , carry away . V : 2 . bring . 
IX:3. 

f err urn ,T, n . , iron , axe , sword . 



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fessus,adj .weary , tired, worn. IV: 14. 
l . fetus , ad j . breeding , filled, full . 
i . fides , f i ( leT , f . , true t , faith , reliance , eredi t , 

fTducia , ae , f . , trust , ass i trance , conf idenoe , security . XXIV : 11 . 

fTgo , fixT, fTxus , ere , to fix , fas ten , pos t , erect , drive , at tack . 

f igura , ae , f . form , shape , figure , s tyle . 

fTngo,finxT,f ictus, ere , to feign, pre tend. IX: 10. 

finis, is ,m. boundary, limit, end. 

fTo, fieri, used, as pass. of f aei"o,v . f aoio". 

flaioma,ae,f .a blazing fire, flame, glow. XXXIX: 8. 

f lee to, f iexT,f lexus ,ere , to bend, turn, bow, move . 

flos /oris, m. a blossom, flower. XXVI : 5. 

f luvius ,T,m.a rive r, stream. 

forma , ae , f . , f orm , contour , figure , looks . 

formica,ae,f .anant , XXXIV: 5 . 

fors,fortis ,f .chance, luck, accident . 

f or si t an, adv .perhaps, it may be that. 

forte, adv. by chance , casually , happen so. 

for tuna, ae , f . fortune , luck, fate , chance . 

f ragiiis , e , adj . easily broken, brittle , fragile , weak, frail .XVI : 6 . 

f rater , tris,m.a brother, elder. XXV: 13. 

f raus , fraudis ,a fraud, deceit , crime ,mi stake, harm. 

frigus ,oris ,n. , cold, coolness , chilliness, winter, frost. 

frons,f rondis,f .a leafy branch, green bough , foliage . 

f ruor , fructus ,T, dep. en joy, delight in. 



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f rustra,adv.in deception or error ; without effect, in vain . XVI : 19 . 
fugax/acis ,adj . timid, fleeing, cowardly . 

fttgiehs , entis , adj . , fleeing , fleeting , receding, fermenting , xxxv : 10 . 
fugio",fugT,-,ere, to fly , flee, run away, kas ten, avoid, omit , escape . 
xxxv; 12. 

1 .fungo ,fudT,fusue ,ere , to pour out , shed, yield, lose, utter. 
fundus,T,m. the bottom, lowest part, foundation. 
funestuR , adj .with com}: . deadly , fatal , mournful , gloomy . 
funus , eris , n . funeral . 

G. 

Gaetulus-adj .of , belonging to,Gaetulia,a country in Africa, 
gaudehs , entis , adj . jj oy fui , glad , cheerful . 
gaudeo", gavTs us /ere , t o be glad , re j oice , be j oyful . XXII : 19 . 
gelidus , a , urn , adj . cold , icy , chilling . I V : 8 . 
( gelu ) , abl.gelu, frost, cold, ioe . 

geminus , adj . twin-bom , twin , double , both , two ; as subs t . twins . XXXV : i . 
genio ,uT,- ,ere , to sigh, groan, lament . XXVI : 7 . 
genae ,arum , f . tne cheeks . 
genet rTx ,Tc is , f . a i ao t he r . 

geno,-,-,ere, to beget, bear. Pass. to be born. 
genU8,eris,n . ,a race, family, descent , birth, kii id. 
genaen,inin,n. ,a Bprig, sprout, bud. XXXI II : 1. 
gero, gessT, gestus ,ere , to carry , wear , hold, sustain , wage . 



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glaucus , ad j . bright , sparkling , grayish . 
grande , adv . loudly . 

granuia,T,n. , grain, seed, kernel, corn. XXXIV : 10. 
gratus , ad j . dear , pleasing , acceptable , grateful . 
gravis ,e , adj . , severe, oppresive, serious , hard to bear , unpleasant . 
V : 3 . 

greiflium,T,n. lap, bosom, near t, cent era?, 
gressus ,us ,ra . way , course , advance . 

grex , gregis ,m . a flock , "nerd , drove , swarm , set , company , clique , troop , 

band. XVI II: 14. 
gurges , itis ,m. abyss , whirl-pool, gulf , sea . 

H. 

haboo",ui ,itus ,e~re , to nave , bold, cutty ,wear. 

haereo~,haesT,haesurus ,~ere , to bang, stick, be fixed, cling. XXXII : l . 

bar undo", inis , f . a reed, cane . XVI : 8 . 

here's ,"edis,m.and f .beir, heiress .XXXV: 14. 

beul interj.of grief or pain, ola I alas i 

heusl inter j .calling attention, hoi there ilol hark, halloa I XXVI :3. 

hTc or hic,m. ,haec,f . ,hoc or hoc, n. , he, this one. V: 13. 

hi ems , emi s , f . t he wi n t e r , s t o rm , cold , f ros t . 

hTr«utus , ad j . wi th corap . rougto , shaggy , prickly . 

homo ,inis ,m. and f.a human being, man, person. 

bone's or honor , orus ,m . honor, distinction , dignity . V : 8 . 



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fcorrens ,entis ,adj .bristly , shaggy, rough. 

korreo%ui,-,ere,to stand on end, bristle , shudder, dread. XVIII : 8 . 
horror , "oris ,11. horror , dread , fright . 
hostilis , e , ad j . enemy 1 s , hostile . 
hostis ,is,ra.and f.a s tranger, foreigner, foe, enemy . 
humahus , ad j . human , humane , refined , civilized . 
humT,adv.on the ground. IV: 14. 
( humidus,huraifer ) , see mai- . 

humilis,e,adj .with eomp.and sup. low, small, slight , poor, humble, in 
significant. 

I. 

Tgnis ,is ,m. L'ire , splendor, brilliancy . 
igriotus , adj .unknown, strange; as subst.strai ger. 
ille,illa,illud; illTus ; as subst. ,he,she,it. 
1 . illic , illaec , illue,pron . he , she , it , that , yonder . 
?>. illTc, adv. yonder, there , in that place. 
imber,bris, heavy rain, shower, water, 
imitatus ,adj ,f ictitional, 

imraanis , e , adj .monstrous , huge , vast, savage, wild. 

1 . immensian , i , n . a boundless extent , vas tness , ii u lensity . 

2 . immensum , adv . exceedingly , inn tensely . 
immehsus , adj . boundless , vast, immense . 

imraergo£ in-; 1- ) , sT, sue , ere , to immerse , sink , dip , plunge . XXVII : 4 . 



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imraeri tus , ( in-m- ),adj .undeserving, not innocent , with fault, 
impar , aris , adj . unequal , uneven , dissimilar . 
impellT), puii, pulsus, ere , to set in mo tiom, drive, impel, 
imperiosus , ( inp- )adj .migiity, powerful, arbitrary . 
iraplec^,"evi,"etus /ere , to fill up, fill , satisfy , complete . 
impressus( inpr- )adj .impressed. 

in, prep. with ace . or abl.aec .into, to ,abl. among,in. 
inane ,is ,n . an empty space , open space , void . 
inanis,e,adj .empty, void, 

incipio , cepT , ceptus , ere , to begin , undertake . I V : 3 . 

incongruus ,a urn, -ill-suited, unfit ted, incongrum. 

increpo, uT,itus ,Tire , to scold, reprove , upbraid. V : 15. 

increscT) ,"evT,— , ere, to grow, increase. IV: 11. 

inde , adv . from that place , thence , therefore , then . 

indTgrians ,antis ,adj . , indignant , impatient, reluct ant . 

i n < Sgria t us , ad j . angere d , r eluc t an t . 

indTgnus , adj .unworthy, undeserving, unfit . 

induo ,uT,utus ,ere , to put on, assume, dress in.V:6. 

Tn-felTx ,Tcis , adj . unlucky , unhappy . 

Tn-f\it( defect )begins . XXXII : 5. 

inf ormis , e , adj ._unformed, shapeless , deformed, hideous . 

( in-f rejio ) , ui , - , ere , to make a noise , growl , bellow . XXI v : 10 . 

in-gemo , ui , - , ere , t o mourn , bewai 1 . 

ingehs , tis ,adj .with comp.not natural, vast , huge , great .XVIII :5. 
inTquus ,adj .uneven , slanting , steep, unequal , unfavorable , unjust ,hos 
tile . 

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In-m-iram- . 

inmTtis , e , adj . fierce , rough , savage . IV: 1 . 
inp- , imp- . 

inops ,opis ,adj .without resources, helpless , weak, poor . 
inquain,-riR-it,perf . ,inquiT,def .verb. ,say. 
in quid. 

inritus , ( irr- ) ,»dj . , invalid, void, useless . 
insanus , adj . of unsouns mind,mad , insane . 

insepio , ( saepio ),psT,ptus , ire , to fence in , enclose , surround. 
TnsTgni s , e , adj .with corap. remarkable, noted, extraordinary . 
Tn-sisto ,8titT,-,ere , to set foot, take a stand, tread on, insist, urge. 
Tn-stirauio ,- ,- ,"are , to goad, urge on, stimulate. XXVI :8. 
inter, prep. with acc ., between, amid, among, in reciprocal relation, 
with, by ,from. 

interea, adv .meanwhile , in the interim,nevert)ieiess , however . 

in-v77do , vasT, vasus , ere , to enter , assail , seize , invade , usurp , att acK. . 
xvili :14. 

inventil) ,vehT, ventus ,Tre , to find, discover .XII : 9 . 

invidia , ae , f . envy , grudge , odium, prejudice . XXI I : 18 . 

invTtus,adj .with sup. unwilling, reluctant , on coiai^ulsion. 

ipse, a, nm,£en.ii)sius ; da t.ipsi;pron. demon str. Self, in person often 

rendered by an emphatic he or very, Just, precisely . 
Trascor ,Tratus ,T,dep . , to be angry, he in a ra e. 



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Tratus , adj . with corny . and sup . angry , enraged . 

iste , a,ud,gen.istius ,pron. demons tr. that , this, he , she , it , such , the 
very . 

i t er ( i t ineri s , n . j ouraey , passage , march . 
iaoio,cuT,-,e"re, to lie, be recumbent, be prostrate, 
i am, adv. , now, already , at length. 

iecur,iecoris ,or iocur,iocininoris ,n. the liver. XXII :9. 

ieiuhus , adj . , fasting , hungry , abs tinen t . 

Iubar , aris , radiance , sunshine . IV: 12 . 

iube<) ,iussT, iussus , ere , to order, bid, command. 

indicium ,T,n. a judgement , trial , sentence . 

i ugum ,T,n . a yoke , col lar . 

Iuppiter,Iovis ,m. , chief god of the Romans. 
iurgium,T ,n . dispute , contention . 

iustus , adj .just , right , hp subst . n . justice , the just . 
invenca,ae ,f . a young cow, heifer, 
invencus ,T,m. a young bullock, 
inventa , ae , f . youth . XXXI V : 1 . 

Tuvo,iuvT,iutus ,are , to delight, gratify , please . V: 1. 

L. 

labor , oris ,m. labor, exertion, hardship, fatigue , trouble, pain . 
laboro , avi , atus , are , to labor , strive , prepare ,be anxious, appressedi 
1 . lacertu8,T,m. the upper arm, muscle, strength, force . 
lacrima , ae ,f . , a tear . 

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laedo , si , sus , ere , to hur t, damage, annoy. XXXI ;2i 
lae tus , ad. j . j oyf u.L , glad , happy . 
lapillus ,T,m. a pebble, .gem, Jewel . 

Lar ,Laris ,m.plur. Lares, urn, protecting gods, Lares, household gods ; 

sing. and plur . hearth , family , hone . 
lass"o ,"avT, "atus , are , to tire , fatigue , exhaust . 
las sus, a, urn, ad j . faint, tired, weary, 
latue,eris,n. the side. 

laus,laudis,f '.praise, commendation ,est eem> 
l.leglo,"avi,£rtus,£rre,to send with a commission, despatch, appoint, be__ 
queath . 

2 . iego^, legT, lee tus , ere , to collect , take, pass over , choose , read , recite . 

leoi,"onis,ia.-a lion. 
1 . le vis , e , ad j . light , trivial , f iokle , gentle , pleasan t . 
?> . levis , e , adj . smoot h . 

iev"o ,"avT,"atas,"arc , to lift up, raise, elevate. IX: 12. 

lex , legi s , f . law , s ta tut e , bill . 

iibere , adv . openly , freely , frankly . 
1 . liceo^cuT,-. 
2.1ice~o,see licet. 

liceor,licitiis,eri ,dep. to bid. . 

licet , cuit , and citum est ,ere ,impers . ,it is lawful, allowed; grant- 
ed that, notwithstanding. 
linqu7),lTqux ,-,ere,tb leave, depart from,forsaXe. 
liquidus,adj .flowing, fluid, liquid. 



— o6- 



lis, litis, f. , matter in dispute,quarrel.T_V:5. 
lituus ,T,m. curved trvu met , clarion , cornet . XXXIX : 7 . 
lividus , adj . wit h sup . bluish , blue , envious /malicious . 
looo",avT/atus ,7\re , to lay , set , arrange , fix , place . 
locus ,T,m.a place ,position , locality . 
longum,adv . long; a long while. 
longus,adj .with corap.and sup. long, extended, 
lucrum ,T,n. , gain, advantage, riches . 

ludif ico","avT, "atus ,*are , to make game of , delude , cozen , deceive . 
ludificor ,a"tus ,"arT,dep. to mock, baffle, thwart, make game of, deceive, 
lumen , inis , n . light . 

lustrum,T,n. a oog, haunt , den of beasts. 
lutens,adj . of mud, clay. 

M. 

macula, ae,f. ,a spot , mark. XL: 1. 

magis ,adv . comp.more ,in a higher degree , completely . 
magnus , a , urn , adj . , great , mighty , large , broad . I V : P, . 
m"alo",m7TluT,malle , to choose rather, prefer. 
malun,T,n. ,an evil , misfortune . 

malus ,adj . ,a ,um, bad, evil ,unsuc :essf u.'L ; as subst .9, evil . V: 4. 
maneo , loansT , ."iansus ,~ere , to stay , remain , abide , tarry . XIV : 13 . 
mansus , "us ,f . the hand, force , courage ; an armed troop, band, company . 
marmor ,oris ,n. marble ;marble statue . XXIII : 1 . 
master , tris ,f .a mother. 



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maturo , avi , atus , are , to ripen , lias ten , quicken , despatch . 
Htaturus , adj . ripe , mature , proper , f i t . 
inie , ac c . and ab 1 . o f ego. 
mihi,dat.of ego. 

me di urn ,T , n . i d ddl e , o en t e r , i n t er v al , i n t er v en i ng space, 
medius ,adj . in the middle . IV : 3 . 
melior ,adj . ^omp.be tter ; v » "bonus . 
Bfembruw ,T , n . limb ,member ,V: 7. 

memor , oris , adj . heedful , mindful , remembering , sugges tive . 

mens ,mentiR ,f . the mind, hear t , intelligence . 

mercor,"atuR,are,Mep. , to trade, deal in, buy. 

meri turn ,T, n . merit service , favor, benefi t . 

meri tUR , adj . deRerving, fit , just , proper . 

merx,merciR ,f. goodR , wares ,merchandiRe .XXIII : 7. 

meRRiR ,is ,f. harvest , cropR ,harveR t-time . 

me~tior,meriRUR ,Tre ,dep. to measure ,me *e , estimate , judge . 

me tUR ,us f m . fear , dread , anxie^ ty . 

meus ,pron .posRess . of me, my , mine, my own. 

mTles,itis ,m. soldier , private infantry . 

mimus ,T,m. ,a mimic play, farce. v: 9. 

minae ,arra,f . , threats ,menaces . 

airiax ,"aci8 , adj .with comp. projecting, overhanging. xix: 13. 

minimum, or minimum, adv . very little, slightly . 

minimus or minumus, adj .sup. least, trifling. 

minor ,~atus ,arT,dep . to project , hold over , menace , threaten . 



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miraculum,i,n.a marvelous thing, wonder, hence anything extraordi 

nary as , finery , gaudy attire . V: 5* 
nTror,a'tUF; ,ara,dep. »to wonder, marvel, admire, be amazed. XVI :8. 
miser, era, erum, adj .wretched, unfortunate , poor, worthless , sorry . 
mTtis , « , adj . tame , doi ies tic , gentle . V: 11 . 

aitto",mTsT, missus, ere , to let go , send, report , despatch. XXI 1 : 2 . 
molior,Ttus ,TrT,dep. to make exertion, strive , toil . 
moneo ,uT,Ttus ,ere , to remind, warm, t each, admonish. IX : 21 * 
mohs,montis ,m. a mountain, range of mountains, 
mora, ae , f . a delay , hinderance , procrastination . 
mordax , acis , adj . biting , snapping , stinging , snarling . 
morienp. , en tis , adj . dying , failing , sinking . 
mors , tis ,f . , death . 

motU8,U8 ,m . , a mo tion^aff ection, passion, commotion, impulse, ges tic 
ulation . 

mox , adv . s oon , anon , direc t ly , by and by , then . 
raultus,adj .many ,mueh. 

munus , eris ,n . a service , function , duty , favor, gift , show , exhibition 
murmur , uris , n . murmur , roar , growling . V: 17 , 
mus ,muris ,m.and f . a mouse . XXVII : 1 . 

N. 

nam, con j . for , because . 

n^ta,or gnata,ae ,f . ,a daughter. 

na tura , ae , f . birth , nature , quaii ty . 

riatus , adj .born, fit , designed; as subst.m.a son or children. 

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1 . ne , I . adv .no ,not II. as eonj. in clauses of purpose, that not, lest, 

to prevent. 

2. ne,part ,enclit.I .as adv. added in a direct question as an inter- 

rogation nark .II, as eonj . in ind . question ,whe ther . 
nee or neque , adv . and eonj. In nec-^negation more prominent ;in neque, 

connection, not , and not, nor. 
nee-dum or necdum,and not yet, not ye t *-XVI : 9 . 
1. neglect us, ad j . neglected, despised, disheveled, slighted. 
?> . ( neglectus,us ) ,w. neglect >negleg1o,e"3dr,"ectUs, ere , to slight , neglect , 

despise, overlook, 
nego ,"avT,"atus /are , to say no, deny , refuse. 
nempe,eonj .certainly, of course, without doubt. 
ne-que"o ,TvT, - ,Tre , to be unable , cannot . 
rie-ve or neu,adv.,and not, nor, and that not, and lest. 
nexum,T,n.a bond, slavery for debt, 
nexus , - ,in . a j oining , entwining , c lasping . 
nidus ,T ,m .a nest , home , house . XXXI 1 1 : ?, . 

nihil, n. ,indecl. , no thing ;acc.as adv. not at all, in no way .XXXIX: 15. 
nimbus ,T,m.a rains tona, thick shower , cloud, mass . 
nimis , adv . too much , excessively , greatly . 
nimium , adv . too much , too , exceedingly , greatly . 
nimius ,a,um, adj . , excessive , superabundance . 

nobiles , e , adj .with eomp . and sup . noble , well-known , famous , renowned . 
nobilitas ,"atis ,f . , fame, renown, nobility, excellence. XL: 6* . 



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noceo,cui,citurus,ere,to do harm, inflict injury , hurt. XXI I I :14. 
non , adv .not ,by no means, not at all. 
riohus ,nura , ord . the ninth . 
nos ,nos trum,v .ego . 

riosco",novT,notuR ,"ere , to become acquainted with, learn, dip? eern,un 

derst and, know. 
noster,stra, strum, pron .possess . our, our own, ours ,of us . 
not a , ae , f . : lark , sign , stamp , letter , no te , quality . 
no to ,avT,"atus ,are , to mark, designate with a nark, 
rictus , adj . known , famous , customary . 
novus , a, urn, adj . new, novel , strange , singular . 
nubila, ("onan ),n. clouds , rain-clouds . 
nubilis , e ,adj .marriageable . 
riubilus , adj . cloudy . 

riudo ,"avT,"atus /are , to- s trip , expose , uncover . I v : 6 . 
riudus , adj . bare , uncovered , exposed, poor , simple . 
riuTlus,adj ;gen.riUllius ;dat.riuilT;not any, no, none, 
num , adv . now ; interrog . implying a negative reply . 
nunen , ini s , n . , di vini ty , dei ty , god ; nod , command . 
nunc, adv. of present tine, now at this time, at present. 

£. 

"o, inter j. of feeling or surprise, 0! oh 1 
ob-eo",TvT,itus ,Tre ,go to meet, go in opposition. 
ob-erro,-,-,"are,to ramble about, wander among, err .XXXI : 1 . 

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ob-f-,see off-. 

0b-sist"6~,stitT,stitus,ere, to take place before, stand in the way, 

oppose , resist . XVI : 19 . 
oculus,T,m.an eye. 

odium, T,n .hatred, aversion, enmity ,insolenee . 

offerTT, obtuli, oblatus , of fere , to bring before , show , offer . 

olidus, rank, noisome , odorous . 

omen , inis , n . harbinger , omen , token , sign . XXI I I : 7 . 
oinnis,e,adj . plur. all, every ;sing, all, the whole. 
onus,eris ,n. burden, weight , load. 

oppono,posuT,positus,ere , to set be Tore ,pppose , pledge , expose , reply , 
set against. 

( ops ),opis, help, succor, influence, resources. XXXI 1 : 4. 
opto , "a vT, "at us ,"are , to wish, choose, prefer. 
1 . opus , operis , n . work , labor . 

2. opus, indecl. need, necessity; opus est, it is necessary. 

orbis , is , abl . orbe ,m . a ring , circle , hoop , orbi t . 

ordo ,-inis ,m . row , order , arrangement , series , rank . 
l."os,oris,( no gen. plur. ) , mouth, face, features, body . 
?, . os , os sis ,n . ,bone , marrow. 

osculum,T,n. kiss. XXXV: 13, 

o tium ,T,n . leisure , ease , idleness , time . 

o vans, ant is, ad j . joyful , exult ant , triumphant . 

"ovum,T,n.an egg. XXXIII: 3. 



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p. 

pabulum ,T,n . fodder, pas turage , grass . 
pallium,T, .cloak, mantle. IV: 6. 
Paroa,ae ,f. goddess of Pate. 

parens , ad j . frugal , thrifty , stingy , sparing ^moderate , scant . 
pardus,T,ra.a leopard, a male panther. XL: 1. 
parens ,entis ,m.and f . father, mother, parent . 
pari ter, adv. equally , in like manner, alike , also , as much. 
particip7),aTvT,"atus ,a"re , to make partaker, share, impart , participate 
in. XII no. 

partus ,adj . gained, acquired; as subst .n . an acquisition , possession, 
store . 

parvolus or parvulus , ad j . very small, petty, slight , young, 
parvus , adj . small, young, short , low ,mean . 
p"asc"o ,p"avT,p"as tus , ere , to feed, support , pasture . 
pascuus , adj . for pasture , grazing . 

1 . passus , adj . extended, open , dry . 

2. passus ,us ,m. a step, pace, track, trace . 
pa's tus ,us ,m. pasture , fodder, food. 

patior , passus , i , dep . , to bear , undergo , suffer , endure . 
patu.Lus ,adj .spread out , open, wide. 
paul£ttim,adv .by degrees, gr dually . IV: 11 . 
pavidus,adj . fearful , timid, startled, 
pectus , oris, n. breast , heart . 

pecus ,pecoris ,n.an animal, head of cattle, cattle, flock. 

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peilis ,is ,f . skin, hide . 

pelio,pepulT, pulsus , ere, to s trick, drive, hurl, impel, rout . ' 
p©ndb%pependT,pensus,ere , to suspend, balance, weigh, 
pe r-prep . wi th ace . through , across . I V : 3 . 

per-ag^,e"gT /actus , ere, to thrust or pierce through, transfix, trav 

erse, agitate, complete, relate . XXXIV : ?>0 . 
per— eo~, iT or TvT, i turns ,Tre , to pasp away, be lost , ruined, perish , 

fall, die. 

pergo%perrexT,perre>ctus,ere , to proc ed, hasten, con tim ie , march. 

perTculura ,i , n . a trial , proof , risk , danger , peril . 

perite , adv . skill fully , cleverly . 

peri tus , adj . experienced, trained, skillful . 

per-misceo^,miscuT,mixtus ,ere ,$o mix thouroughly, mingle, confuse, 
disturb. 

per-mitto",mTsT,mmssus,ere, to let go or lose;give up or over, en- 
trust , commit . 

per-timesco ,nuT,- , ere , to he frightened, alarmed, fear greatly . 
peto ,TvT,petTtus ,ere, to seek, aim at, travel to, strive for. 
Phoebus ,T,ra. god of light, the sun. IV: 1. 
pietura,ae,f .painting a picture. 

pic tus , ad j .with comp. painted, colored, tattoed, adorned. 

piger , gra , grura , adj . lazy , s luggish , backward . V : 9 . 

pTgnus , oris , and eris ,n. a pledge, pawn, wager ,r,roof , security ; child 

pinguis ,e ,adj .with comp .and sup. fat, plump, fertile. 

pisois,is ,m.a fish. XIV: 5. 

piacidue , a, um , adj . gentle, mild, peaceful .IV: 1 . 

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planta, ae , f . a sprout , twig , graft, plant , slip , sole . 
planus, ad j .with comp.and sup. level, even, plane; as subst.n.a plain, 
plane. 

1 .pleoto , - , xus , ere , to plai t , in terweave . 

(pleoto ),-,-, ere, only pass, to be punished, b a ten, blamed, 
poena , ae , f . penal ty , pun ishemnt , recompense . 
pollex,iois,i'i. the thumb. 

polus,T,m.an end of an axis, pole, heavens, sky . 

p"osco",poposoT,- , ere , inch , to beg, demand, desire , reques t . 

possum, po tuT,popse , to be able, have power, can. 

postquam,conj after that , after ,when . 

pot est a t~s , tati s , f . , power , abi i ty , authori ty . XXIII : 13 . 

potius , adv . oomp . rathe"' , preferable .IV: 5. 

poto", aYT,"atus ,"are , to dr inh , absorb . 

praebe"o,uT,itus ,~ere , to hold out , offer , furnish, pre sent . /XXVI : 8 . 
praeceps ,adv . headlong, suddenly , rushing. 

praecipito , avT , "atus , are , to throw headlong, cast down , hurl down , 

precipitate. XVI : 4. 
praeda,ae,f .prey > booty, spoils . 
prae-disc~o,-,-,ere, to learn beforehand. XXII : 1 
prae-fi go , f TxT, fixus , ere , affix . I V : 5 . 
pralium , v . proli- . 

praemit to ,mTsT,»issus , ere , to send forward, despatch . 
praemium,T,n.an advantage , favor , privilege , reward. XXII : 13. 
praeruptus ,adj . steep, abrupt , rugged. 



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prae^ens ,entis ,adj . present , at hand, in person .IV : 15 . 

1 . pr« i e s to , adv . re ady , pre s en t . 

2 . prae-s to , i ti , i tUs , are , to stand before , exee 1 , exceed . 1 1 apers . prae- 

b tat, it is better. 
praesumo,-,umptus,ere,to take before , anticipate . 

praeter-eo",iT,ituR,Tre,to go byi,pass , omit ,negleet , avoid, eRoape , ex- 
cel . 

pratum,T,n. a meadow. 

pravus , adj .with comp . and sup . crooked , deformed, perverse , bad , improp- 
er. 

precor, "atus ,"arT,dep. to ask, pray ,beseech.XXVI : 7. 

premo,presRT,eRsus ,ere, to overwhelm, burden, load. 
i_ 

pretpsus,adj .v/ith oomp.and sup. costly, precious, dear. 

prex , precis ,f . a prayer , entreaty , request . XXII : 6 . 

primus , ad.j . sup . the f irR t , f irR t . 

prior , ad j . comp . f ormer ,pre viouR , first , sooner . 

procella,ae,f . ,a violent, wind , Btorra, tempest, hurricane , onset . 

prod-eo,iT,itus,Tre, to go forth, come forth , project , appear, advance. 

pro-do, didT,dit us , ere , to exhibit , reveal , produce , relate , transmit , 

elect , betray , abandon . 
proelium,T,n . a battle , combat , contest , s trife . X7XIX : 1 . 
prof ugus , adj .fugitive , in flight , wandering , nomad, banished, exiled . 
pro-fund^,fudT,fURiis ,ere , to pour out , shed, utter , rush forth, vent. 

XXXV: I , 

prohibe"o,uT,itus /ere , to hold before , cheek, debar , prevent .X^I I I : 7 . 
propero ,"av~i, "atus /are, to hasten, begin, go quickly. XII :3. 

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proprius , adj . own , individual , particular . 

pr^-rump^,rupT,ruptus,ere, to break forth, rush forth, make an att- 
ack. 

prosiiio",\u,-,ere, to leap forward, spring f or th, rush, has ten. XII : 2. 
protinus,or protenus, adv. immediately, at once. 

protinus or pro- tenus, adv. right onward, farther on, continuously . 
pro-traho, traxT, tr actus, ere, to bring f orth, produce, discover , re- 
veal , be tray .XXIV: 1 . 
pro-venio, venT, vent us ,Tre , to appear , arise , grov; , prosper . 
providus ,a,un,adj .prudent, foreseeing, prescient, circumspect. 
P ruden t ia , ae , f . .Core s ight , prudence , di s ere t i on . 
pruTna , ae , f . hoar-frost , rine .XXXI V : 7 . 
pulcer,-see pulcher. ■ 

pulcher , ehra , chrura , ad j . wi th comp . and sup . beaut i ful , fair , hand- 
some. XIX: 1. 

puppis, is, acc.im.abl.i,f .stem of a ship, poop. XIX: 7. 
purus,adj .with comp. and sup. clean, pure, unwrought. 
pyra,ae,f.a funeral pile, pyre. XXXIX: 8. 

Q. 

quaero,sTvT,sTtus,ere , to seek, look for, ask plan. 
quam-vis,conj . altho, however, notwithstanding. IX : 15 . 
quattuor or I II I or IV num. four, 
-que , con j . enclit .-and. 



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querous, us j,f .an oak, Italian oak.XVI:l. 

querulus , adj . querulous , complaining, cooing, plaintive, warbling. XXXI V 
12. 

qui , r e 1 . pron . who . 

quia , con j . "because . XXXI : 9 . 

quicquid-see quisquis. 

quidem,aclv . demonst . Certainly, indeed, in fact . 

quTdaja,quaedam,quoddam,pron.indof . ,a certain, certain one, somebody . 
quidnain,adv . interrog.why ,pray? why in the world? 
quies /etis , f . , quiet-, rest , inaction , silence , sleep . 
quiet us, adj .at rest, in repose, quiet, peaceful, 
quis, in terrng. pron. who . IV: o . 

quis , qua , quid , pron . indef . anyone , anything , some one , some thing . 
quisque , quae que , quidque , each one , every , everybody . 
quis-quis , quicquid, quod, quod, pron . rel . indef .whoever , whatever , ev- 
en'' one who , every thing which, 
quod, con j .because , for . 

quodcuiaque , indef . pron . whatever , what soever . 
quoius,old for cuius, gen. of qui, and quis. 
quondam, adv . once ,f ormerly . 
quouiam adv . since ,now , because , whereas . 
quoque ,oonj .also , too . 

R. 

r abide , adv .madly , furiously . 



rabidus , ad j .mad, paving, rabid. 

radicitus ,adv .by the roots, utterly , radically . 

radius ,T,m. beam, ray . IV: 11 . 

ramus ,T,m . a branch , bough , twig . 

rapide , adv . wi th eomp . hurriedly , rapidly . 

r ap i dus , ad j . sei z ing , imp etuous, fleet, hur r i e d , rapid . 

rapTna , ae , f . robbery , plunder . 

rapi"o,piir,raptus , ere, to seize and carry off , snatch, drag, pluck, 
ratus ,adj .reckoned, fixed, fulfilled. 

rancus , adj . hoarse , deep-voiced, ringing, roaring, grating , faint . 
rector , "oris ,ra. a guide , driver . 
rectum ,T,n. , good, virtue, rectitude . 

rectus, adj .with eomp. and sup. straight, upright, just , correct . 
red-do , didT,ditus , ere , to return , restore , grant , surrender . XXIII : 6 . 
rede~o ,ii ,itus ,Tre , to return, recur, come to. 

ref ero~,rettnlT,relatus,referre, to answer , relate , tell , announce . 
IX: 19. 

re-fert or ref ert,tulit,-,ferre, only 3rd pers. ,impere.or with 
pron.n.as subst.it is of importance, advantage, concern. 

relinquo~,lTqui,lietus ,ere , to leave behind, quit, abandon, move from. 
XII: 3. 

relisus-part. dashing, bounding, against . 
remaneo~,manp~i ,- ,~ere , to be lef t, remain, V: 4. 

re-mi tto,mTsT, missus , ere , to send or drive bacK., re turn, restore, 
release . 



reor,ratus , erT, dep . , to calculate ,beleive , think , judge , deem, imagine . 
reperiT) , repperT,repertus ,Tre,to discover, find, obtain . 
repeto ,TvT/Ttus , ere , to fall upon again, seek again , "return . 
requie~sco\TvT/etus,ere, to reft , repose . 
res , rei , f . thing , affair , ease , condition . 
resTdo , sedT,- , ere , to sink down, set tie. 

re-spondeo", spondT, spo~nsus ,¥re , to answer , reply , respond. XVI : 11 . 
re-sto,stiti ,-,7Tre , to resist ; oppose /remain. XXXIV: 19 . 
resulto", - , atus , are , to spring back , rebound, resound, re-echo . XXXIX : 13. 
retineo", tinuT, tentus ,ere , to k*ep back, retain, repress , preserve , oc- 
cupy . 

re-torqueo~, sT, tus /ere , to twist back, turn or throw back. XXIV: 9. 
reverentia , ae , f . re spec t , timidi ty , reverence , fear . XXIII : 11 . 
rex , regis ,m . an arbitrary ruler , monarch , king . 

rideo , sT, sua , "ere , to laugh , smile , deride ,mock , ridicule . X X XIV : 15 . 
rig"ese"o,guT,-,ere, to grow stiff, be benumbed, stiff ened. 
rigidus , ad j . with com]) . stiff , hard, inflexible , rude , rough . 
ripa , ae , f . a bank , margin . XVI : 5 . 

rTsus,us ,m. laughing-stock, mockery , object of mirth, 
robur , oris ,n . strength, force, vigor, oak stem, tree- trunk . 
rogo","avT,"atus,"are, to ask, question, propose .XXXIV: 4. 
rostrum, i ,h. beak, bill ,mouth,muzz ac ,plat-f orm. 
rota,ae,f .a wheel*. 

rmapT) ,rupT,ruptus , ere, to break, burst , tear , force open. XIV: 11 
ruo",uT,"atus ,ere , to fall down, rush, hurry, run. 

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rupes,is,f . rock, cliff .XXVI : 1. 

rursus , adv . again , in turn . 

rus ,ruris,n. fields , lands , country . 

ru»ticus,adj .of the country , rural , sub St .m . , country -nan , farrier, 
peasant. Vi IS. 

S. 

s ac ro ,"a vT ,~a t us /ar e , t o de vo t e , eonsecra t e , de dica t e . 
sacrum ,T,n. a holy thing, sacred vessel, temple, sanctuary . 
saepe, adv. with coinp.and sup. of ten, frequently . 
saevus,adj .with comp.and sup. raging ,mad, fierce, savage, severe, 
cruel . 

sa.lix , icis , f . a willow-tree , XXVI : 6 . 
salto ,avT,"atus /are , to dance. 

sapiens, entis,adj .wise , discreet , as subst .m.wise person, discreet 
man . 

satio ,avT/atus ,are , to fill , satisfy , sate . 

saxum,T,n.a large stone, rocfc, bowlder. XXIV: 14. 

scilicet , adv .you may know, of course , certainly , no doubt. 

scrutor , ari ,~atus , dep . to ransack , examine thouroughly , explore . 

sculpo" ,psT,ptus , ere , t o carve , chisel , fashion . XXI V : 14 . 

se , v . suT. 

secre tus , adj . private , apart , secre t . 

securus,adj .easy , unconcerned, fearless , free from danger. 
sed,conj .but ,on the contrary, but also, out even, but in fact, yet, 
however. 

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sedeo , sedi , sessum , ere , to sit . 
sedes , is , f . chair , seat , bench , throne . 
sei,-see si. 

semen, inis ,n. ( of plants ), seeds; ( of men ), seed, race, 
semper , adv . always . 

senium, i,n. old age , decline, trouble . 

sehsus ,us ,m. sense observation, feeling, view. 

sen ten t ia, ae ,f. opinion, sentiment, purpose, verdict , feeling. XXVI : l 
sepulcrum or sepulchrum,i,n. ,a grave, tomb, sepulchre. XXI II :3. 
sequor , sequi , secutus , dep . follow aft er , pursue , accompany , at tend . 
senrio ,"onis ,m. , talk, conversation, discourse. 

servo ,"avT,"atus ,~are , to save , guard, Keep, protect , rescue .XVIII : 15 . 
set, old for sed. 
seu, v . sive . 

sT , con j . , if , when , since , inasmuch . 

sTc,adv. thus ,in this way, as I do, as you pee. 

sTdus,eris,n. star, group of stars. iv:l. 

BTgno,avT,"atus /are , to mark , designate , sign , stamp . 

sTgnum ,T, n . a mark , sign , proof . 

silva,ae,f.a wood, forest. 

simia, ae,f. an ape. 

simul ,adv .at . the same time, at once , together . 

singulT, ae , e , ad j . single , separ; te , individual , one at a tine , sepa- 
rate . 

sinus /us ,m . fold .IV: 10 . 

sitiens , entis , adj . dry , thirs ting . XXVI 1:1. 



Bitis,is,f. thirst, dryness, eagerness . 

sive( sen ),eonj . or,if , whether , if either, Rive sive, either or 

whether or. 

sooius ,T,m . comrade , companion , associate . 

sodes,(from rT andes);if you will, please, pray, with your leave, 
sol , soli s ,m. the pun . 
s o li turn ,T,n. what 1b usual, customary . 
solitus ,adj .won ted, usual, accustomed, oomnion. 
sollertia , ae , f . skill, shrewdness , dexteri ty . XXI V : 13 . 
soiiicito", vT , "a t us , ar e , t o di s t urb , ur g e , inc i t e , in v i t e . 
solus ,a,um,adj . gen.solius ; dat . solT; sole,singII e , alone , preeminent 
V:4. 

sono",uT, it us /are , to sound, speaK. . 

sonus ,T,m . a noise , sound , tone , character , s tyle . 

sorde"o ,-,-,ere , to he dirty, mean, despised, appear worthless. 

sors , tis , f . lo t , fate, chance , fortune , share . 

spec to ,"avT,"atus ,"are , to look at, watch, inspect , at tend, face , relate 
spero ,"avT,"atus ,~are , to hope , trust , expert . XXII : 7 . 
sp~es ,speT,f .hope. XXI 1 : 11 . 
spina, ae,f .a thorn. 

spTnetum,T,n. a thorn-hedge , thicket of thorns. 

spolium,T,n. skin , hide ;plur. the anas stripped from an enemy, prey 
sp~ons , spontis , f . accord, free will , impulse . 
squamiger,gera,gerui i,adj . scale-bearing, scaly .XIV: 5. 
stimulus ,T,m.a goad, prick, incentive , stimulus . 



sto , steti , status , are , to stand upright, be erect. V:9. 

stridulus , ad j . creaking , rattling , hissing , buzzing . 

sub, prep. with ace. (with verbs of motion) and abl. , under, near, at 
the foot of, about. 

sub-do", di lT, ditus , ere , to put under, apply , Ret to , supply, substitute . 

sub-e'o,iT,itus,Tre,to come under, go under, enter. 

sub-rait to , ( surara- )mTsT, missus , ere, to put down, lower, sink, drop, de- 
spatch secretly , help with, reduce, yield. XXXIX: 12. 

submoveo" ,mo"vT,motus , ere , drive back, pull .IV: 10 . 

subp-v . supp— . 

subripio,ripui,ruptus,ere,to snatch away , steal , take secretly . XII : U . 
substantiate ,f . resources , wealth. 

1 . sub ter , adv. below, beneath, underneath. 

2 . sub t er , prep .with abl . or ace . below, b< ;neath, under . 

succeVio ,cessT,oessus ,ere , to come up to , advance , take the place of, 
succeed, prosper. 

1 . succid~o,idT,- ,ere , to fall under, sink. 

2, succTd"o,cTdT,cTsus,ere , to cut off from below, cut down, fell. 
suT( gen ),dat.sibi,acc.and abl.se or more emphatic. 

' s~ese~, himself , herself , itself, themselves ; referring to subject of 
thought. 

sulcus ,T,m . a furrow , trench , ditch . 

sum , esse , f uT, f uturus , t o be , exiR t , live . 

summa,ae,f . the t op, summit, leadership, supremacy , general management , 

v/hole amount. 
summum,adv.at the utmost, at farthest, at most. 
Buramus, a, urn, ad j .sup. highest, the top of , greatest, supreme, chief . 

= J 



superb! a , ae , f . pride , haughtiness , rudeness . 
superbus, adj .with comp.and sup. proud, rude, domineering. ' 
BUperus , superior , supremus , adj ; upper , higher , an sul is t . ra . plur . gods 

above. Plur.n. heavenly bodies , celestial . things, 
super-sum, fuT, esse , to be over and above, be lef t , remain, survive , 
outlive . 

supplex v subpl . - )icis , ad.j . begging , humble , suppliant , en treat ing . 
supplieium ,T, n . pe ti tion , supplication , penal ty , pain , punishnen t . 
sup-pono, ( subp.- )posuT,positus,ere, to put below, set under ,bury , 

s ow , f o rge , o oun t e r f e i t . 
surgo", surrexT,- , ere , to rise , ascend. 

Biiscipio, oepT, ceptus , ere , to undertake , be gin , enter upon . 

1 . suspee tus , ad.j .with eomp.mistrus ted, suspected. 

2. suspectus ,us ,m. a gazing upwards, es teen, respect. 
suspend~o,dT,KUs,ere, to hang, suspend, 
suspensus , adj . raised , suspended , doub t ful . 

1 . susurrus ,T,m. a hu^'iing,raurrauring,iauttering,v7hispering. 
'?, . susurrus , adj . raut t ering , whispering . 

suus ,a,um,adj . of oneself, his own, her own, its , their . 

!• 

tain, adv. so, so much, so very;non tarn quam,not so much as, less tha 

tamen,adv . , notwithstanding, .nevertheless , however, yet , sti.i.1 . 
tan tus , adj . so great , such, so. 

tardus , adj . with comp . and sup . slow , stupid, tardy . 



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teguraen,inis,n. cover, 
tela , ae , f . web , loom , warp . 

t ellus , uris , f . earth , globe , re gion , dls trie t . 
templum,T,n . temple , shrine . 

temp to ,~avT,~atus ,"are , to handle , feel , test , tei ipt , incite ,urge . 
1 . tempuR /oris ,n . time , season , opportunity , ooeassion. 
?,. terapus , oris ,n. the vital spot, temple. 

tencio , tetendT, tentus or tensus,ere, to stretch, extend, pitch, erect, 
reach , o ff er , r trive . 

teneo", tenuT, - /ere , to hold , have , grasp , control , comprehend . 

tenuis , e , ad j . slender , slight , insignificant . 

tergura ,T , n . the back , skin , hide . V : 15 . 

terra , ae , f . earth , land . 

terre"o,uT,ituR , "ere, to scare, fright en . 

terribilis , e , adj . terrible , frightful , dreadful . 

1, testis, is, nua ffitne^s. . 

2. testis, is, m. a testicle. 

testor ,"atus /arT, to call as witness, invoke, appeal to, assert, prove, 

bear witness .XXXIX: 12. 
thensaurus or thesaurus, i,m* a hoard, treasure , store , collection, 
t hyraum , i , n . t hyrae . 
tibi(dat.of tu)v.tu. 
time"o,uT,"ere, to fear, dread, 
tiraor/oris ,m. fear, dread, alarm, timidity. 

Tiryn thi us ,i,m. Herculean, of Hercules ; as subs t .m. Hercules .XXXII : 5 . 

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Titan-Phoebus , god of light, the sun. 

tolio , sustulT, subiatus , ere , to lift , raise , exalt . XIX : 6 . 

torio, uT,-,are , to sounrt, thunder ,make a loud noise. IV: 7. 

torpe~o,-,-,ere, to be numb , inactive , dull , feeble . 

t or vus , ad j . s t aring , Ke en , piercing , f i ere e , griro , s t e rn . 

t"otus ,gen,t"otTus ,al 1 ,all at once, the v*hole, entire , in to to, upon the 

whole , generally . 
traTdo , didi ,di tus , ere , to give up , deliver , consign , surrender . 
traho , trTTxT, tractus , ere , to draw away , tug, drag . 

trans-eo",iT,( TvT ),itus,Tre , to go across ,pasR ,pervde , spend, endure . 
trepidus ,adj . anxious , alarmed, restless , agitated, 
tribuo" ,uT,utus , ere , to give , assign , yield, pay , spend . 
tristis,e,adj .with comp.and sup . sad, dejected, melancholy , sullen , 

stern, harsh, disagreeable . 
truncus ,T,m. stem, stock, bole , trunk, 
t rux , ucis , ad j . wild , rough , Ravage , s tern , hard . 

tu, gen. tuT; dat . tibi or tibT;aco.and abl. te;pron.pers .2nd. person, yo 
tum,adv . then, at this ar that time. 

tume~o,- ,- ,"ere , to swell ,rage ,be inflated, excited .puffed up. 
tumidus , a , urn , ad j . swoll en , swelling , tumid , rising , high . 
tumul tus , us ,m . an uproar , tumul t , panic , disturbance , storm XXXV : 5 . 
tunc, adv. then. 

turba , ae , f . uproar , quarrel , crov/d ,mob ,masR . 
turbidus ,a,um,adj . , violent , confused, vehement . 

1 . turbo , inis , m. a hurricane , whirlwind , tornado , circle . 

2 . turb"o,a"vT,"atus /are , to disturb , disorder , scatter in confusion. V: n. 

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turpi s , e , adj .with comp . and sup . ugly , foul , disgracefi.il . 
tus ( thus )turis , n . frank-incense . 

tutus , adj .with comp. and sup .guarded, safe, secure , out of danger 
tuus ,pron .pof>s . thy, thine, your, yours . 

U. 

ubi , or ubT, adv . of time , when , since . 

ul t iiium, adv . for the last time, finally. 

ultimus ,adj . sup. farthest , most remote , last , extreme . 

umidus , adj .moist , humid , Lamp , a s subs t . n . a . swamp . 

unda,ae,f.a wave , billow. 

undi que , adv . from all parts,all around, e verywhere , on all Rider; 
unguis , is ,m. claw , talon. 

unlcus , adj .only , sole, single, unique , uncommon . 
unus ,num, one . 

urna , ae , f . a water- j ar , cinerary urn . XXVI 1:1. 
ursa,ae,f.a bear. 

ut ,conj . ( with subj . )that , in order that, so that, 
uter-que ,utraque ,utrumque( gen, utriusque , sometimes utriusque ) 
each, either , one as well as the other.' 

V. 

vacuus ,adj .with sup. empty, void, .free, idle. 
vadum,T,n.a shallow place, shoal, ford, 
vane's , or vallis ,f . valley , vale , hollow. 

-83- 



varies co,-,-, ere , to vanish, pass away , diss apear. 

vatiura ,T,n. naught , emptiness, groundless . 

vanus ,adj . empty , void, vain, weak, groundless , false . 

vario", avT,~atus /are , to vary, diversify , change , alternate , dif f er ,XL : 3 . 

varius ,adj .variegated, diverse, various, fickle, untrustwir thy . XXXV : ?, . 

vas tus , ad j . < >mp ty , was te , huge , vas t , rude , rough . 

veho, vexi, vectus , ere , to bear , carry , convey , draw. 

1 . vel,conj .or rather, even. 

2. vel, adv. even, certainly, if you will ,( perhaps ) . 
vellus , eris ,n . fleece . 

venator,"oris,Ji.a hunter. XXIV :2. 

venditor /oris ,m.a seller, vender. 

v eni "o , vehT , v en tus ,Tre , t o coiae . V : 10 . 

ventus ,T,m . wind . I V : 7 . 

ver , ver is ,n. spring. 

verber ,eris ,n . lash, whip, rod. V :14. 

verbriM,T,n. word, talk, conversation . 

verso^or vorso ,"avT , "atus , are , to keep turning, handle, whirl about, 

turn over, be busy* 
versun or vorsura, adv. turned in the direction of , facing. . 
versus, or versus, adv. to wards , facing. 
vertex( vortex )iois,n. a whirl , eddy , vortex. 
veru,us ,n.a spit , broach, dart, javelin. 

1 . varum ,T, n . truth , f ao t , reality . 

2 . verum , adv . yes , truly , doUb tless , however , but , certainly/' . 
varus , adj . true , genuine , right , just . XVI : 5 . 

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vester , or voster , tra, trum,pron .possess .your, yours . 

vestigium ,T, n . foot , step , f oot-s tep , trace ,mark . 

▼estis, is, f. clothing, at tire, vesture . 

vetulus , adj .elderly , advanced , in years . 

vetus ,eris ,adj .old, aged, 

via , ae , f . road , path , highway , j ourney . 

victor, "oris ,itr. traveler, way-farer. IV : 4. 

( vicif? )only gen vicis,f .change, alternation, return, succession, of- 
fice, duty , retaliation, 
victor ,oris ,m. victor, conqueror, vanquisher .IV : 15 . 
video^vTdT, vTsus ,ere , to see, discern, perceive. XI 1 : 2. 
vigor /oris ,ui. vigor , liveliness , activity . 
Vineo,vTcT,vTctUS,ere,to conquer, defeat , subdue . 
vinculum or vinolura , i,n. chain , f e iter, cord . V : 14 . 
vir,T,m.man . IV: G . 

vireo" ,-,ere , to be green, verdant , to bloom, 
viridis , e , ad j . green , fresh , verdant . 

virtus ,-utis ,f . vlaor ,nerit , worth, manliness ; plur . virtues , 

vis ( gen .vis, la te ),-, acc .vim ; abl . vi . f . ; plur .vires , iura ; s t rength , 

power , virtue , supply , quantity . 
viscus , eris ,and usu, viscera, mn,n. the viscera, entrails , heart , life, 
vita , ae , f . -life . 

vito ,"avT,"atus ,~are , to shun , avoid, evade . XL ; ?, , x 
vTv"o,vTxT,-,ere,to live, be alive, survive. XXII :16. 
voeo , avT, "at us , aire , to call , s\;unmon , invoke . XXXII : 6 . 
volnus , eris ,n. wound, blow, calamity , defeat . 

-90- 



volo , volui , velle , to wish, determine , purpose . 
volpes,or vulpes,is,f .a fox. XL: 7. 

vol tus ,us ,m. countenance , features , looks , air , expression , face . XL : 5 . 

voluoer ,ueris , uere , adj . f lying , winged, flee ting . XIV : 6 . 

v77mer,eris ,m. a pj.ough-share .XII : 

vortex, sec vertex. 

voster see vester. 

votuia,T.n. a solemn pledge, vow. 

vove"o,vovT,vo"tus,ere,to vo , pledge , devote , consecrate XXXIX:!. 
vox , vocis , f . voice . tone , speech , language . 



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